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Workplace diversity is now recognised as an important feature in organisations, especially in multicultural nations like Australia. What communication problems might arise in a culturally diverse workplace, and how can managers best deal with them?

I have part 2 research that it talk about mobile platform ,my part one research has been done from your side, in this part I have three main points it should be covered:
1- This part it going to be focus in introduction (you can take it from part one research paper but change little bit on it), discussions and conclusion.
2- All resource it should be online even if it’s a book.
3- The three discussions it should be very simple English and very easy to understand , also the discussions each one it should be written with different ways and each one not more than 300 words.
All the documents that relate to the research it will be attached, also I will attached the part one paper to help you with any farther information.

 

 

Name College
ITEC 415 – Applied Research methods
____________________________________________

References:

[1] Birmingham City University
http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.22.htm

[2] University of Canberra
http://www.canberra.edu.au/studyskills/writing/introductions

____________________________________________

Writing introductions [1]

Your introduction is the first impression your readers will have of your writing. A good introduction will show them that you know what you’re talking about and that you’re going to complete the task in question. It will also make them want to carry on reading and feel well disposed to what is to come. A bad introduction will have the opposite effect and might even prejudice the reader against the rest of the writing, even if it does improve.
The most common mistakes made by students are:

to include too much background/historical information in the introduction
to make the introduction too long

A good introduction will:

  • show that you are going to answer the question or complete the task
  • show that you understand the issues and their implications
  • Show how you are going to do this by indicating the structure of your answer and making clear the main areas that     you are going to write about (your plan).
  • show evidence that you have carried out some research by making a reference to one of your sources
  • be totally relevant
  • Be concise: 8-9% of the total number of words is usually recommended (eg 120 words in a 1500 word assignment).

    You want your tutors to say to themselves “Good! This student has understood the question, has done some research and is going to answer the question set, not another one. Let’s read on!”

A typical introduction [2]

Below is an introduction which would be suitable for a 1500-2000 word essay on intercultural communication. This introduction will be analysed to show its content and structure.

Question: Workplace diversity is now recognised as an important feature in organisations, especially in multicultural nations like Australia. What communication problems might arise in a culturally diverse workplace, and how can managers best deal with them?

Over the past twenty five years, since Australia embraced multiculturalism as a policy, issues of intercultural communication have become more and more prominent in the workplace. However, until relatively recently, little had been written on these issues, and even now, many organisational managers have no training or knowledge of how to deal with communication problems, even though most workplaces are staffed by people of diverse cultures. Particular problem areas include the difficulties that some non-English speakers have in understanding safety instructions (figures produced by the ABS in 1997 show that migrant workers have a higher incidence of accidents at the workplace); an ignorance of the different forms of non-verbal communication used by other cultures (for example it is considered impolite in some societies for an employee to look directly at his or her employer), which can lead to misunderstandings and unpleasantness; and the lack of knowledge about differing expectations. Based on interviews with managers and staff in six organisations (public and commercial), this report examines these three problem areas, and shows that many of the difficulties faced by both natives and migrants in the workforce are caused by a lack of awareness of, and training in, intercultural communication. (About 190 words)

The Content of an Introduction [2]

Always remember this: in academic writing, nothing must come as a surprise to the reader. Academic writing is not like fiction writing, where the reader can be held in suspense, not knowing who committed the crime, or whether the girl will get the boy, or whether the story will end happily or tragically.

In academic writing, the whole ‘story’ is outlined in the introduction, and given in detail in the body.

Remember this too: in academic writing, everything must follow logically from a starting point. It is unlike fiction, where accidental happenings can change the direction of the story with unexpected twists and turns.

In academic writing, there can be no twists and turns; the logical direction of the argument is indicated in the introduction, and followed faithfully in the body.

Any introduction must contain the following:

  • Brief, relevant background information and/or other contextualising material
  • An essay map
  • A thesis statement
  • Your point of view

Brief, relevant background information [2]

Providing background information or other contextualizing material shows how your topic fits into a broader framework, and what approach you are taking. By doing this, you can point your readers in the direction you want them to go; you can also show them why the topic is significant.

‘Brief’ and ‘relevant’ are the important words. Don’t give your reader too much context— give just enough (often only a couple of sentences is ample for a 1500-2000 word assignment) to place the key issue of your assignment in its context.

In the introduction above, a brief background of the topic is provided in the first two sentences.

Over the past twenty five years, since Australia embraced multiculturalism as a policy, issues of intercultural communication have become more and more prominent in the workplace. However, until relatively recently, little had been written on these issues, and even now, many organisational managers have no training or knowledge of how to deal with communication problems, even though most workplaces are staffed by people of diverse cultures.

These two sentences briefly put the focus of the assignment within its historical context, and show the reader why there is a problem. It is not necessary to give more background information in the introduction to a short essay.

Essay map [2]

The essay map gives the scope and direction of your paper. In one sense, the whole introduction is an essay map, since the introduction should serve as a guide to navigating the written assignment. However, it is also important to show what specific areas your writing will cover.

The example above continues:

Particular problem areas include the difficulties that some non-English speakers have in understanding safety instructions (figures produced by the ABS (1997) show that migrant workers have a higher incidence of accidents at the workplace); an ignorance of the different forms of non-verbal communication used by other cultures (for example it is considered impolite in some societies for an employee to look directly at his or her employer), which can lead to misunderstandings and unpleasantness; and the lack of knowledge about differing expectations.

In this way, the introduction has provided a map to the essay, since the essay is going to cover these topics in detail.

The thesis statement [2]

A thesis statement is a single declarative sentence that states what you want your readers to know, believe, or understand after having read your essay.

The thesis statement is one sentence (or more if the assignment is long and complex) which explicitly states the focus and direction of the writing.

It is usual to put the thesis statement at the end of the introduction, but it can sometimes be placed at the beginning. Don’t put it in the middle of the introduction.

The thesis statement often begins with expressions like: ‘This report examines… ’ ‘This essay will discuss…’ ‘This article demonstrates…’. We recommend that you adopt this strategy, especially if you are an inexperienced writer. That way, you won’t forget to put the thesis statement into your introduction, and your reader has a clear idea of what the focus will be.

The introduction example given above continues:

Based on interviews with managers and staff in six organizations (public and private), this report examines these three problem areas, and shows that many of the difficulties faced by both natives and migrants in the workforce are caused by a lack of awareness of, and training in, intercultural communication.

This sentence tells the reader exactly what to expect in the essay, as well as showing how you have gathered your information and what conclusion you will come to.

Incorporating your point of view [2]

You may find it very difficult to know what is meant by a ‘point of view’. As an undergraduate, you are new to the discipline, and you probably don’t know enough about the subject matter to have a point of view about it.

As well, it is also drummed into you that you should avoid personal comments such as ‘I think that such-and-such’ or ‘In my opinion, such-and-such’.

So what can ‘your point of view’ mean?

Generally speaking, in an undergraduate assignment, having a ‘point of view’ means coming to a particular conclusion rather than leaving the question up in the air. The conclusion need not be original.

In Example 1 above, the part of the thesis statement above that says:

…many of the difficulties faced by both natives and migrants in the workforce are caused by a lack of awareness of, and training in, intercultural communication…

counts as a point of view. It is an assertion; it shows that you have come to some conclusion as a result of your reading and thinking.

Making the introduction interesting [2]

The introduction is the first thing your reader will read. If it is dry and dull, your reader is not likely to want to go on reading it. Your lecturer or tutor has no choice over the matter; but he/she will not take kindly to being bored from the outset.

You can add interest to the introduction by:

  • giving one or two examples of the kind of thing you are going to write about
  • giving unusual or colourful details
  • beginning with a relevant quotation (from anywhere except a dry textbook)
  • beginning with a question (which can be answered in the essay’s conclusion)
  • making sure your grammar and word use are absolutely right

AC TIVITY- Example introductions [1]
Imagine you are studying the mass media as part of your course and you have been set the following essay title:

Examine the sociological evidence of stereotypes of social groups in the mass media. What are the causes of stereotyping in the mass media and to what extent do they influence social attitudes?

Word limit: 2000 words

Read the following examples and decide which meet the criteria for a good introduction.

Example 1

As we all know, Britain is a multicultural society. In the 1960s many thousands of immigrants came to the country, mostly setting up home in the major cities. The majority of these immigrants came from the West Indies, India and Pakistan and Hong Kong. Racism has always been a problem, with the various groups of immigrants seen as stereotypes, although over the years there has been increasing integration into British society, particularly by the children of immigrant families. This is reflected in the mass media. Twenty years ago black people were rarely seen on television and very few held jobs in the press. However, nowadays, more and more black people work as journalists and are thus able to look at events from a different perspective.
Your comments: _______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________
Example 2

Stereotypes are everywhere: the reserved British, the disorganised Italians, the shopping-obsessed Japanese. This essay will talk about these stereotypes and ask if they are true. It is going to look at the different types of stereotypes and their representation in the media. The following areas will be covered: television; radio; the press, and the cinema. I will particularly look at television and ask the question “Does television reinforce these stereotypes?”

Your comments: _______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

 

Example 3

Stereotypes abound in today’s society. People seem to have an innate compulsion to categorise others into various groups and then to apply rigid and limited descriptions to these groups. There are therefore, amongst others, stereotypical nationalities and races; stereotypical sexes and sexual orientations and stereotypical classes. And one place where these stereotypes often thrive is in the mass media, particularly in the tabloid press and popular television, such as in situation comedy. Some, for example Hick (1996), claim that this is a harmless phenomenon, whereas commentators such as Ealham (1998) point to the possible dangers of obsessive stereotyping in the media. This essay will examine what sociological evidence there is for the process of stereotyping in the mass media, and will then go on to analyse the reasons for its occurrence. The final part of the essay will ask how far society’s attitudes are in fact shaped by this portrayal of the various kinds of stereotypes.
Your comments: _______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________

Introduction 1

Your tutor would read an introduction like this with a great sense of foreboding. There’s no real problem with the actual English, but the writer shows no indication whatsoever of answering the question. The word ‘stereotype’ has been picked up on, and narrowly interpreted as meaning racial stereotype. But even then there is no attempt to focus on the actual question, and most of what is said is irrelevant. Probably a fail.

Introduction 2

Too short for a start, and not very well written (inconsistency of tenses: will/going to) No attempt to put the question into some sort of context, to get the reader interested in what’s to come. At first, it looks as if stereotypes are being interpreted simply as national stereotypes and also the writer goes off on the wrong tack: the question does not ask for a simple description nor asks about the validity of these stereotypes. The last part of the introduction, however, does indicate that the last part of the question will be addressed. If the writer manages to focus more on the actual question, the essay might just scrape a pass.

Introduction 3

This is a very good introduction. It’s about the right length (c8%); gives a little relevant background and context, indicating that the writer has thought about what a stereotype is in its broadest interpretation; makes some initial references to sources; and finally focuses precisely on the question, showing the reader that it has been fully understood and that it will be answered. Note that the wording of the final part of the introduction is very close to that of the question. If the essay follows in the same vein, it should get an excellent mark.


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