Work Employment Relations (Human Resource)
Work is simply the application of physical or mental effort with an intention of accomplishing something or producing some sought of desired result (Sowers, 2008). In physics work is defined as any force applied over some distance of displacement. Work has a vast definition and the one described in the first context encapsulate of what it is.
In our living world work has been in existence since the earth was made to the present time .It is evident that is divided into forms which involve the delivery of services and goods. In this way people have any form of occupation are able to make a living out it.
Timelines for work
There are various timelines of work, which range from a part time to full time occupations. This is usually because of the deliver of the labor results in to the much desired outcome (Noon, 2007). A good example of a part time occupation is of that of a construction worker. He or she gets employed by the management and is expected to work on a specified project within a particular time frame. He or she then is obligated to work and produce quality delivery which allows him or her to be paid.
Types of work related payments
There are various types of payment for occupation undertaken. These are wages for labor e.g. biweekly payment, and monthly payment (salaries as lay men know it as).Wages is usually payable in weekly basis after a working period. While salaries a payment made for labor after one works for a month
Types of work
There are many types of work in almost every field in our environment. These are:
Medical type of work: This type of work is broad and relates to offering care and treatment of disease in a preventive or curative manner. The medical field of work involves the likes of occupations like pharmacy-which involves compounding and dispensing of viable medicine to patients per se. The other part of medical related work involves various physicians who are trained laborers who deliver treatment after careful and precise prognosis done on patients. There are also nurses whose work is to nurse patients to recovery and offer any other care including hourly rounds.
Media type of work: This type of work involves media workers who obtain information with an aim of communicating it to the masses. The media entails broadcasting, editing, and program management among many others.
Social work: entails helping people in social related context .This occupation can either be on a voluntary or on a permanent basis, which all depends on the nature of the work and its time frame (Sowers, 2008). Good examples of social workers are the Red Cross members. These type persons involve themselves in aid related work… whereby each of them help in offering first aid and disaster management programs such as hunger stricken countries. In which they visit, assess and deliver services such as psycho care and offering of nutritional advice of hunger victims.
School work: This type of work involves the students and pupils who are institutes. Basically the students work entails finishing assignments and practical that relate to education. Some thing to note is that it does not involve any form of payment as many other occupation do rather the student tends to pay for the service i.e. tutoring, lecturing or teaching.
Education type of occupation: in this occupation the worker here are lecturers, tutors and teacher. Who are expected to sell their service which is teaching to students and pupils as such? The lecturers’ teachers and tutors work under a time frame know as a course outline or teaching outline. This also has time table in which attendance to the elite ought to be attended to over a period of time. Once the delivery this service is made they worker her get paid on the agreed after the time lines of work.
I.C.T occupation: This type of work involves a trained personal in the information technology sector. Who is supposed to offer his services such, technical skills in running technologically related components such as internet management-repair, soft wear production, programming and other forms of it related o information, communication technology.
Production related work: In this type of work various productions take place in the presence of workers who put in the labor to achieve the desired outcome. The production field involves such people as .farmers in the agricultural sector, the construction companies whose work is to meet building requirements by building specified building over a period of time.
All in all any type of work is supposed to be something that when done it brings in some form of income or satisfaction (Noon, 2007). It also involves ethics which must be followed to the core. As this assures smooth sailing of work: in any kind of field.
Q1. What does literature talks about service work?
On a daily basis, there are images of hordes of service workers, smiles tugging at their lips, content to be in a position to cater for clients. As one Mr. Marriott who credited his father was later to soberly pipe, his father knew that the secret to having happy customers was having happy employees. However, on the other side, there is an image of an employee stripped off his self-esteem and job for having too long hair as a waiter.
There are diverse and varying types of service work and they can range from prestigious jobs like banks, impressive jobs such as airhostess, to simple jobs such as nannies and waiters in restaurants.
Thus, to leave their customers happy and content, the managers give their employees tutoring on how they can have good personal looks. Despite ads such as “Smile” and “Show Friendliness” being placed on areas that are accessed by employees only, it comes as a no wonder to see a heart-touching sight of a staff, painful tears making wet runnels on his or her cheeks after abuse by customers. This happens more so to the call staff. To cap it all, the mental torture of the staff forced by the managerial to have customers consume more and more of their wares. It might be strange by so saying or it might not ring bells but here is the rub of it, they are unwilling to force clients to buy their products and services.
In the service work sector, there have been efforts to envision the relationship between the staff and the employer as described in the service work and social theory. The people who proposed this theory, Marx, Weber and Durkheim, may walk over their logic that they used in their theory because they based it on the break in both the society and the associations that were then in their lifetimes. However, there no disagreement that service work has continued to dominate the employment sector.
Service work has been so vital in the employment sector that some artists went all hog and focused their attention on the service work. Some of these artists have produced films based on the service work. Two artists cited as examples are great comedian Charlie Chaplin in the classical Modern Times released in 1936 and the infamous French painter Edouard Manet in his 1882 picture Bar at the Folies-Bergere . In the latter picture, Edouard Manet paints a picture of a young waitress in the bar illustrated in the paint Bar at the Folies-Bergere. On the other hand, in the Charlie Chaplain’s 1936 release, Modern Times, Chaplain portrays a waiter whom is singing.
The artists have been so exceptional in describing and illustrating the service work sector such that they go to the extent of putting forward all the strains, doubts and incongruities that the service work staffs face. To skip nimbly on the Charlie Chaplain’s Modern Times (1936), who acts as a singing waiter. In the Modern Times , he is portrayed as having been written for him the lyrics of the song in the cuffs of the shirt he had been clad but out of the blue, he has been chosen to perform that task of the singing waiter soon after he tossed off the cuffs.
Q2. What is service work?
Defined generally, service works the work that entails working (offering services) on other persons. In the work services sector there are many and varying types of jobs. They may be in hospitality sector, in the airline industry, in the hotels among other types of jobs. Similarly, depending on the type of job, so do the type of position one holds differs from one job to another.
One scholar, Robin Leidner, categorized types of work into three types. The author in his book, Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service work and routinization of everyday life (1993) based the types of service work on the indivisibility of the relations from the product traded. According to the author, are one, service works that have little indivisibility in a way that there is little involvement between the item consumed and the service (Robin, 1993) Service works in this category include jobs in restaurants such as waiters. (Malek, 2009) In the second category are service works whereby the existence of the product is different from the interaction but there is the requirement of experience of which is vital in the offering of the service. Service works in this category is airlines, which vows to the customer gracious services whilst they are on their journey. The third category of service works are whereby the relation is undividable from the service offered or form the product that is on the sale. Examples under this category include tutoring.
Examples of service workers involved in the service works include on the hospitality industry, in the retail, in the restaurant among others. Restaurant service workers include waiters, servers, concession staff, and other types of attendants in similar places. In hospitality industry, the service workers get involved with the accommodations of the clients and they include bellhops, porters, room servants, sweepers and hotel managerial staff. Service workers who are in the retail sector are involved in administrative work and other services such as making the payments, attending on the money register and other forms of transactions.
What is factory Work?
Factory work is the use of technology in terms of machine age to manufacture good and products. Many terms factory work as harsh working condition for workers owning to the rapid pace of industrialization. Factory work involves the employment of several men and women who undertake a dangerous working condition. It is worth noting that factory work and system is the cause of industrial revolution across the globe (Stein 1908). The work done in the factory involves the production of goods and services for the whole market and not only for self consumption.
In factory work, ten or more workers are involved in the production of goods. It is apparent that there is no rests day in the factory in which work will be terminated. Working in there involves an all the round clock in which the manufacturing process usually takes place with the use of power. Factory work also involves working on any of the days that proceeded the twelve months in a year (Bradley 2000). The minimum workers in a factory can be termed as ten employees; this is because there is a lot of work that requires enough manpower.
The several workers in the factory ensure that there is mass production of products for markets much wider than those which are served for the domestic system. Factory work hence involves the production of goods on a mass scale (Noon et al 2007). There is the use of expensive machines in the factory with high degree of efficiency as well as precision. The workers are only characterized with having to operate the machines hence ignoring the concept of manual skills. Products produced in factory work are standardized products (Noon et al 2007)). It is easier to tell the products that have come from factory work as a result of the highly specialized and accurate machines. It is worth noting that the industrial revolution witnessed in England was largely responsible for the development of several factories around the world. We can therefore evaluate the fact that factory work involves mass production, mechanization, division of labor, standardization as well as consequent changes in the industrial scene.
Service work and Factory Work
Service work involves a lot of human contact. For instance, every day we encounter people who are able to deliver services to consumers. In employing service work within an organization, managers ensure that the services are organized in such a way that they reflect a win win situation for the customer. On the other hand, human contact involves people who hold professional as well as paraprofessional jobs in such areas like diverse settings in the homes, correctional, mental retardation and community mental health centers (Stein 1908). Other services offered in service work involves youth service agencies, and the programs that are initiated to tackle alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence and the ageing people in the community.
Service work entails assisting individual as well as the communities to function as effectively in ensuring that people are attended to. Service work is a strong urge in a person to offer help to others in the society. It involves having to show patience, understanding as well as caring when dealing with various people (Bradley 2000). For instance, one is required to offer a listening ear and attention to a mentally sick person while at the same time granting them the required service.
On the other hand, factory work involves dealing with the machines so as to deliver on the necessary service. A worker in the factory must be able to familiarize with the manufacturing process and be able to understand how the machines are working. The most important part in the factory understands how technology plays an important role through the direction of the worker in delivering services (Noon et al 2007). The worker is mostly associated with the progress of the various machines. For instance in a sugar factory, the worker engages in ensuring that the packaged products are in good conditions and can therefore be readily dispatched.
Differences and similarities of Service Work and Factory Work
Similarities between Service Work and Factory Work
In Service work as well as factory work, leaders tend to control the process through which the labor is offered. In this case, the direction of the leaders is fundamental in ensuring that goods and services are effectively delivered. In both cases, there is a realization of profit gains through the surplus use of surplus labor (Stein 1908). In service work, as well as in factory work, the price of the commodity is usually great than the costs that have been incurred in the production. The value is achieved through the evaluation of products that have been sold.
In both cases, the managers in the organization seek to direct how the work is organized towards productivity. This also involves the speed at which the work is performed and its overall duration. The general strategy that is involved in both is the strategy of deskilling in which managers try as much to illustrate the status of them being in control (Macdonald 2009). The work segment in both cases are planed and organized and each member is entitled to carrying out his or her objective in the course of work. Managers ensure that there is direct control of the process of production in both situations.
Differences between Service Work and Factory Work
Service work basically involves human interaction while in factory work; the interaction observed is mostly with the machines involved in the manufacturing process. In the case of Factory work, workers have to be familiar with the machines involved in the manufacturing process while in service work; one is entitled in being able to coordinate the services that are responsible for delivering the products and services (Bradley 2000).
The other difference between the two components is that factory work is basically in an enclosed area known as the factory while service work resolves basically in the community. Service work may involve working in the hospitals, in the banks, in the shops and in any other area that might result in service delivery and which is not related to the factory. Factory work involves having to work within the closet of a factory in which one is guided by the direction of the machines. Working in a factory is a risky affair for several people have to work under hard conditions which might even results in ones death (Macdonald 2009). Service work involves having to meet several people in the environment as compared to working in the factory where you only get to meet the people you are working with. On the other hand, the only interactions that basically occurs in the factory is the interaction one encounters in having to control the machines.
The moral cultural norm of any work area determines the quality of the delivery of services and goods (Reamer, 2006). Take an example of the construction area. The worker if they work under deplorable conditions, the delivery of labor will lack zest during the work period, if the management is poorly skilled in management of sales and production control, then work area is affected in one way or another.
In order to secure every ones jobs/occupations: then every one is supposed to work with quality intentions. Quality delivery makes anything be renowned, anyone would agree to that!
Sowers, M., White.B, and Dulmus, C, 2008, Copmrehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare: The Profession of Social Work, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NewJersey.
Reamer, F, 2006, Social work values and ethics. Columbia University Press, New York.
Marek, K. (2009). Service work: critical perspectives. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Robin, L. (1993). Fast food, fast talk: service work and the routinization of everyday life. California: University of California.
Bradley, H, 2000, Myths at work, Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, NJ.
Lecture Notes (n.d) Lesson 5 Work Routines
Macdonald, L,C, 2009, Service Work: Critical perspectives, Taylor & Francis, London.
Noon, M and Blyton, P, 2007, The Realities of Work: Experiencing work and employment in contemporary society, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Stein, L, 1908, Work or labor, Ayer Publishing, Massachusetts.