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Why is it so difficult to explain the causes of crime? 2. Discuss key non-sociological theories of crime and assess their validity for helping to develop a deeper understanding of crime and the c

this is 3 seen exam questions what am looking is as much hel and points like evalution and ctisim on each question dont mind it coming in point form no one look at maxism fuctinalism etc the one below is some of the work l was workin on the CRIME PREVENTION THEORY NO REFERENCES JUST IN TEXT IS FINE FOR EXAMPLE according to tailor 199 Newman lacked this this.
this is what l have been doing so far
The gov is using the SCP as the means of reducing crime and the impact on society this essay is going to evaluate the effectiveness of SCP which is also known as opportunity SCP depart from main stream of criminology and focuses on the importance of opportunity and mainly on social and economic cause of the crime as well as offender motivation. Crime is the behaviour that breaks the formal laws of the society it can be minor for example dropping litter theft or murder.
rational choice and routine activity are some of the theory which underpin the scp theory the theories describes how crime can happen and how the criminal evaluate how they can perform a crime .Rationale theory is mostly used by those criminals who think they are smart if they evaluate the situation and think they can benefit and get away with it they carry on with it This approach tends to include crime preventon measures that take some time to produce intended results The scp makes thing harder for criminals to commit a crime they was so many things introduced to make everything harder for example cars are fitted with mobilisers and this can stop criminal to steel the car one can argure that while scp may prevent crime at thet particular store or street the crime is likely to somewhere else. One potential problem in all the discussions of situational prevention is the thorny issue of displacement. The concern is that by introducing measures which make some targets less vulnerable, the determined crim¬inal will not be deterred but will simply switch their attention to a slightly easier target. Thus, if all new BMWs are fitted with sophisticated alarm and immobilisation systems, the thief may simply target older cars with less sophisticated protection Heal and Haycock (1986) have noted, if offending is merely dis-placed, then situational crime prevention measures are worth little in the long term. The problem is that it is often difficult to prove or disprove whether displacement has occurred. If a crime prevention initiative in one small geographical area proves to be successful, it might be thought a simple matter to measure whether the reduction is mirrored by a cor-responding increase in adjoining areas. However, this is far too simplistic, and, one might argue, naïve. For example, the burglar may shift attention not to the adjoining area, but to one in a different police district or county. In this case, the increase may go unrecorded by any researcher trying to prove or disprove the existence of displacement. Similar problems may well be encountered if the offender switches from one type of crime to another. Thus a domestic burglary prevention scheme may lead to a reduction in the number of domestic burglaries, but to an increase in the number of commercial premises targeted. The police may fail to acknowledge this when reporting on the success of their original initiative.
The implementation of cctv as situational a approach has become increasingly and popular particular in UK (murphy 1999) so many cctv has been installed to prevent and reduce crime .for example.cctv has becaome a feature in more shops banks Burrows 1980 describe the use of cctv as amajor attempt to reduce crime robbery for example a cctv helped a lot on under ground trains cctv was placed on 4 train stations postined to give views on patform ticket escalotors which was high risk as aresulty there were 252 reports which were made in 12 months .payner 1991 he come with elements of fencing the house and improvements of roads was a risk and contribute to crimes but brown and ADAM 1983 The use of 3 fetures can help burglas in adition to norma security measures .New man come up with his ideas of paying attention to the architectural design and the environment but was later critisied that in his idears he forge the social factors , for example how many people are on benefits in the area.

• Although theories like functionalist and Marxist focuses on the causes of the crime Realistic concentrated on the ways to prevent crime and they didn’t look at the cause of why people commit crimes. SCP targeted the minor crime like street crime.MAX talks about the crime of wealth and the rich.

• Environmental criminology tends to change the specific of the environment that characteristic of the environment which cause the crime eg a window is broken you have to fix it to avoid attraction to the criminals.

• Scp works onThe Right, especially in America (cf. Bright, 1992), sees situational prevention as an irrelevant response to crime because it neglects issues of moral culpability and punishment.
• Moreover, it “punishes” the law-abiding by infringing freedom and privacy.
• The Left characterizes it as politically and socially naive in its neglect of the role of social and economic inequities in causation and of political muscle in the definition of crime (Young,1988).
• Liberals assert that by “tinkering” with symptoms it diverts attention from the need to tackle the “root causes” of crime such as unemployment, racial discrimination, substandard housing, inadequate schooling and inconsistent parenting

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