What are “superior virtue” and “inferior virtue” according to Lao Zi? (2) Why did Lao Zi criticize “inferior virtue”? (3) How would a Confucian, who emphasizes deliberate/disciplined moral cultivation, respond to Lao Zi’s criticism of “inferior virtue”?

(f) The paper should show use of library resources [research books or journal articles only, rather than
source books such as (English translations of) the Analects and the Dao-De-Jing], through at least two
direct or indirect citations from different resources [the citation from the supplementary reading counts only
as one / the textbook does not count] in the main text of your paper and giving their full reference
information [for its format, see that in “Subject Bibliography” of the textbook Chinese Philosophy A-Z] in
the “References” part at the end of your paper. For relevant book/journal-article resources, you can consult
“Subject Bibliography” of the textbook Chinese Philosophy A-Z, Sections 1.1.2 (Yi-Jing philosophy), 1.2.2
(classical Confucianism) and Section 1.5.2 (classical Daoism).
(g) As for how to write philosophy papers, endeavor to follow those guidelines given in Reading 20 of Course
Reader, “Some Suggestions for Writing Philosophy Papers” (by Martin Benjamin)
I. Based on your understanding of Lao Zi’s and Confucius’s relevant teachings and in view of your
own opinion, explain what a reasonable relation between ‘superior virtue,’ advocated by Lao Zi,
and disciplined morality, emphasized by Confucius, would be.
Steps: (1) What are “superior virtue” and “inferior virtue” according to Lao Zi? (2) Why did Lao Zi
criticize “inferior virtue”? (3) How would a Confucian, who emphasizes deliberate/disciplined
moral cultivation, respond to Lao Zi’s criticism of “inferior virtue”? (4) Try to give an account
which includes reasonable/adequate points from both Lao Zi’s and Confucius’s teachings in this
regard. [In your discussion, to support your analysis, need to cite relevant passages from the
Analects and the Dao-De-Jing plus your explanation.]
library website: https://www.sjlibrary.org/

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