Q.1 Researcher ethics study
Ethical Treatment: Unsurprisingly to the teachers, the impoverished children who hail from low-class societies of the discriminated races have got low performance at schools. This is one or in any other way expected from them by their teachers. The capability of the participants is gauged by their races whereby the races that are considered to inferior and are marginalized are expected and are pegged to perform poorly. The other ethical treatment of the participants is the social status whereby there are segregated classes: lower-class and middle class. The variation of cultures was also a determining factor in the participation.
Experimental validity: with experimental tests the teachers have the perception that the performance at the starting of the school academic term could be used to peg the performance of the participants year round in the school studies. The predictions are figured out according to the level of performance improvement within the subsequent months. However, the outcome cannot be judged by monitoring the behavior of the party. An example can be given by pupils who are always pegged to perform poorly by their teachers, and if that does happen, then it can’t be proclaimed by the teacher that the prediction was effective.
Changes to reduce ethical concerns: the educational officials are supposed to hold meetings with the teachers and lecture them on how they can motivate pupils in a way that they view themselves with the potential to perform better, without basing their capability according to former performances, rather than segregating those they expect to perform poorly and well. Racial prejudice should be banned in schools and perpetrators should be punished so as to provide an environment where learners can compete with each other without the phobia of discrimination.
To initiate smooth co-existence among the diverse cultures, races and social classes, the authorities should promote all-races, all-classes and all-culture schools. In the issue of the societal classes there could be bursaries to the poor learners so that they can access education facilities which they could otherwise not afford. In the schools, the education officials could promote each culture whereby cultural poetry, dances and songs could be performed in the presence of all other learners who hail from different and varying cultures. (Rosenthal Robert, 1968) In so doing, the learners can learn to respect each other’s culture and discrimination based on those factors could get reduced.
Q.2 Intellectual gains on less liked students
The students who were less liked by the teachers improved unexpectedly. From a social psychological perspective, they could have put extra efforts to prove the teachers wrong and show them that they had the capability despite being favored against. They could also have put extra efforts in their education so that they could improve their performances in order to win the attention of the teachers and them too be liked. Another reason for their improvement could be that they were envious of those loved and as always where one party registers success in the presence of other people who have yet to, it becomes the main goal of them. Most of the people who are favored brag themselves and want their presence recognized wherever they go. In contrary, if one is favored against, they remain in a low profile and in most cases, to themselves. They have the advantage of the time that they remain alone and in the cases of the unexpected improved performance, they could have taken the time putting extra efforts in their studies.
Q.3. Theoretical implications
Just like in the soccer, the best are segregated in a particular league. In most cases, perhaps borrowing the message of the age-old adage; birds of a single feather flock together; the poor performers could have studied harder so that they could win the friendship of the best performers. They could also have done so, so that they could prove themselves that they could do what the others could. A potential influence of negative stereotype could be that they improved so that could prove the predictions of the were with baseless, like dust and crushed as easily as mosquitoes.
Q.4. Should elementary schools use “tracking”
Elementary schools should use “tracking” to place students in groups. This is an appropriate method of motivating learner. The “tracking” can be a platform for competition and competence whereby each learner can try to outdo the other and win the favor of the teacher. If a learner is segregated by the teacher as a poor performer, he or she can use it as degradation and a mockery and thereby using all in his power to prove the teacher wrong. In most cases, the good performers jeer the poor performers and it can be a psyche to them whereby they would use it to make extra efforts and in the next time be the ones that are either mocking the ones who had mocked them or others.
Teachers are respected greatly in schools. While the self fulfilling prophecy is welcome, it must be limited. They need to address the areas that the poor performers are poor at and be open to questions. The teachers should not like some students more but instead should favor them more. If the learners are less-liked they would tend to keep distance from the teachers are have fear seeking assistance when in need of asking questions. Favoring the students, as in by giving them incentives, can be the driving factor to improved performances in the learners rather than less liking them because if less liked, they would tend to draw to themselves and fear the teacher when seeking guidance.
Rosenthal Robert, J. L. (1968). Scientific American: Teacher Expectations for the Disadvantaged. California: H.W. Freeman & Co.