Organizational management can be defined as the orderly administration of ventures, portfolios and business plans with the objective of accomplishing the vision goals.
Primary leadership theories
Leadership can be defined as the communal control that an individual can assist the group or organizational members to achieve a similar duty. In the world history, great leaders have come and gone; some leaving glories in their footsteps while others leave woes in their wake. Examples are: Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler. Others achieve greatness by building empires like infamous Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. Over time, various leadership theories have been proposed. The primary leadership theories are:
Participitative theory; this theory proposes that the best form of leadership is the one that involves the contribution of others. In this theory, the verdict to let the participation of others in the decision process lies in the hands of the leader himself but there are no restrictions of the other members in the various leadership processes like decision making.
Great man theory; this theory borrows its conjecture of the ideal leadership from the adage, “great leaders are born and not made.” Or rather this was according to the great leaders that the world has ever had such as Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln and Alexander the Great. This theory applies mainly into situations where leaders come out as if from the blues and steers the rest to safety.
Contingency theory; this theory says that the factors of environment establish the style of leadership theory that will be applied. It also puts it that the success of the style of leadership applied will be determined by the characteristics of those being led.
Behavioral theory; in simple precise and concise terms, this theory proposed that what is vital is the measures undertaken by the leader and not psychological abilities. It also points out that someone can be schooled to become a leader or through watching other leaders.
Trait theory; this theory soberly pipes that leadership qualities can be hereditary. It proposes that the traits of leadership are born. It points that the leadership skills are connected to the traits. For example, if a leader has a dominant skill, he can influence others and so he is socially skilled. In some way, this theory falls in to the category of the Great man theory.
Situational theory; this theory suggests that the characteristic of the situation determines the leadership style that will be applied.
Transformational (relationship) theory; this theory suggests that the leader will get the followers from the people that he motivates. Under this style of leadership, the leader accomplishes things by keenness and vigor on the others.
Transactional theory; in this theory, the leader gives psyche to the others by incentives and metes out punishments to them if they veer off the course.
Applications of various leadership theories in business
There are a number of ways that are used in business settings for good performance. Some of these theories are:
Transformation theory; this theory is based on the leader-follower compatibility. The best outcomes are achieved by motivational standoff, being conscious of the objective and the potential to voice out individual fervor. The cynosure is how to make that vision come true. The leaders relying on relationship build their own “brand name” and then pass over the motivation to their followers. The leaders using this method have various tasks such as supervising the duties, make the visions realized and appear in the front line in molding the organization in such a way that perfect and exceptional business observances are met.”Transformational theory appeals to the moral values of followers in an attempt to raise their consciousness about ethical issues and to mobilize resources to reform institutions.” (Yuri, Pg 262)
Trait theory; the business is run by the naturally-acquired traits (hereditary factors).Some of the traits are: the trait of being adaptable to various situations of which an inborn intelligence is needed and the trait of self-confident of which can be applied in fluent speaking.
Situational theory; when using this theory in the business setting, a leader doesn’t make decisions in a free-style, rather, he judges using the specific situation. The leader is faced with the sole responsibility of solving conflicts between others, directing the course of the business, coaching those being lead and assisting and assigning tasks to others.
Contingency theory; in a business setting, the accomplishment is determined by the leadership style, the characteristics of the members and the conditions of the situation.
Behavioral theory; A leader is molded into being one through coaching. Here, the factors that could lead to malfunction are pointed out. The guidelines that drive the business are: form the team, mold entities and accomplish the aims.
Strengths and weaknesses of contemporary leadership models
One of the strengths of a contemporary model is that he should be able to be in a position to efficiently pressure the acquaintances and members on all levels and also authoritatively accentuate the acquaintances and members and the requirements and standards of them. Second, it entails a power to cherish pride and inventiveness and requires a multi-dimensional approach.
Weaknesses of contemporary leadership model
Some traits are more interconnected than others such as aptitude, dominance and masculinity. Other problems are unfussiness, expert prejudice, practical inflexibility and the incapability to solve big problems. Another weakness is that various finest alterations may be the ones that that are in dire need of extensive quantities of information and time dedication. Also from time to time, essential alterations are blemished for managing the condition that has been damaged (Sims Ronald, 2005).
The effect of power and influence on leadership
Power and influence give the drive and control on organizations and projects. In the working situation, there are those that will be more effective at connecting, appealing, inspiring and in the end getting things accomplished via others. The people that possess that capability are the most hardworking and the smartest in their tasks. The people who have influences become socially intelligent because they need to use skills that push the others in power to do things for them. In short, they have to accomplish well-honed skills so as to get things done their way. Other effects of power and influence are that it corrupts. Leaders who may abuse their power and influence may become prone to wasting valuable time and vigor and also unable to complete duties since they spend a lot of time pushing others to do things that they themselves could maybe do. The leader may entrust the duties on a compliant fending off seclusion and insulation. On the contrary, the leader when influenced by the power and influence, he builds a multiple outcome because they identify how things work in real sense and expand their objective through groups and whole organizations. The leaders who have influence and power create more and more demand for them from their superiors because they like to see leaders with aspirations, dedication and motivation in accomplishing more. Under influence and power, there’s productivity because those with power get to have more accomplished. There’s the prop up of brand genuineness because there’s the search for power and influence necessitates that the leader live up to affirmed worthiness proposition (Seleshi, 2001).
Significance of leadership in initiating and managing organizations
The organization must motivate a culture of modification of leadership so as to instill leadership outwardly. In the present world, there is rivalry in businesses and so the organizations must make use of the accessible chances and form fresh ones so as to prosper. So as they can register good results of the alteration, they need to possess a methodical change administration advance which will assist them to respond quickly to the alterations that arise in and out of the organization.
Ways affecting leadership
The corporate culture is the overall summation of significances, practices and implications that render a company or organization exceptional. Leaders are the people who get things done while the corporate culture is the medium through which the leaders recognize how to communicate and how to get work and look forward to on their day-to-day basis. Initiating change in a corporate culture doesn’t come in an instant. It is accomplished by one step after another. Corporate culture personifies the objective of the company’s creators. The leaders may be compelled to instill corporate assessments and principles of conduct of which may particularly reveal the aims of the organization and there are existing inside moves in the staff. The teams in the organization possess the characteristic habits and relations which have an impact on the whole organization.
Personal values; liable and charismatic leaders have the correct principles founded on their qualities and they stick on them to steer their actions. In conditions of liable leadership, the leader’s worth, principles and decent behavior are of the supreme importance.”…a specific set of personal values of a leader has transforming effects the positive both on individuals and on organizations” (De Vanna, 1997). “On a personal level, a White Hat leader must be able to articulate the values he possesses…values, when exhibited to staff, flow throughout the organization, raising the level of performance in each division, department and office. People sense and see these traits in action, copy them, and thereby multiply the positive impact on the organization…” (Warren, 2007)
Globalization; Leadership ought to create a futuristic trail for the organization and therefore it is the duty of the administration to guarantee that they stick to the trail. Globalization makes that course difficult by the varied environments and customer base that must be put into consideration. Others that are affected by globalization are: competition, influx of prospects and the relocate rate of employees to overseas. Before the influx in globalization, organizations used to put into consideration market and the customer foundation to be place of origin. Giving motivation and supervising the staff is a head aching act because the leaders and the administrators have to alter measures and guidelines so as to put into great considerations some issues such as sex, masculinity, ethnicity and tribe. On the other side, the globalization has made administrations to develop overseas and this gives room to production. Because globalization leads to more and more staff being relocated to international posts, it brings the requirement for more organization and means of communication. Globalization leads to an influx in business rivalry since some places will be deprived of some factors such as the iron grip on service and production. This will lead to increased chances and it will set the platform for business firms to offer business rivalry all over the world (Robert, 2005).
Effects of leadership on performance; it’s obvious that people will relate themselves to desirable outcomes. If the outcome performances are admirable, the followers put extra effort and are also contented with the leader whose usefulness they recognize. The followers also entrust themselves on the leader. If we were to give an example using a football team, say A and B; if team A fails to win, the fans loyal to the team will put the blame on the team captain saying that the team didn’t have the psyche whilst playing. On the contrary, if team B wins, it will give the players more determination and the purpose of working and practicing harder so that during the next set of matches, they will not lose.
The centrality that ethics has to leadership within organizations
So as to be really transformational, leadership has to be based ethical issues. There are four constituents that have been proposed about transformational leadership. They are: idealize authority, logical enhancement, motivational influence and personal reflection. Morality is needed for the collective options and measures on which the leaders and the group employ and cooperatively follow. To cater for the concerns of the others, the moral form of conduct comes into use. Lastly, the followers can either decline or embrace the principled ethics that characterizes a leader’s visualization, verbalization and also the course (Sara, 2010).
The presence of gender issues relating to leadership
In the world, gender power affairs favor great men. In this same world, women are barred from the public life domain such areas as making of decisions and leadership. The female gender can easily access the various public zones than in the commercial corporation. However, if the non-existence of vehemently varied sex-responsibility both gender vary sparingly in their characters and there is slight prejudice in the way their conduct is figured out by fellow employees and their superiors. Women are given low status due to the gender prejudice in most countries of the world. An example of such countries is Ethiopia where they are barred from not only leadership but also the possession of material assets. The claim behind this women gender marginalization is that “…women’s appropriate public behaviors’ trigger interlocking forms of institutional exclusion of women…” Thus is the cause why a lot of and different traditions continue to marginalize the female gender. In many nations, the administrative work of the female gender falls into a step behind that of men. In precise and concise terms, male supremacy dominates and continues in the economic, social and also political system whereby the female gender is marginalized and only represents a small percentage of the total “…cultures and traditions invest superiority in men but are acknowledged as drawbacks to women seeking leadership positions” (page 4). There are also other factors that contribute to women being marginalized such as the quantity and quality of education. In some African countries, females are not educated simply because if educated, they will get married and create an impact on the home they marry rather than where they were born. Instead of being educated, they face other outdated traditional customs such as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). If these disparities are shed off, then the role of women in the society will be greater. Instead of being marginalized, they will dominate the various sectors whether political, economical or social sectors. According to the rated researches, countries with the highest gender prejudice include: Italy, Mexico and Japan while the ones with less gender prejudice include: Sweden, Denmark and Norway. It would be possible because the female gender are said to hold half the sky; that is they comprise at least half the world population.
Effective application of a personal leadership perspective
Before we plunge into this section, we can paraphrase Jesse Jackson, “that you can’t teach what you don’t know and you can’t lead where you won’t go.” For an effective leadership, the leader must be, “…bold, visionary and spiritually-grounded.” Leaders must also adhere to the following guidelines. They must be inquisitive or occasionally asking questions and pushing for answers. They must have a vision: an objective and knowledge of the future and how it can be accomplished. They must be trustworthy and rear leaders out of the others. They must be unselfish and have the knowledge that their sole purpose is to serve the followers. They must be tough and be conscious what the aim is and how to push for it to be accomplished. They must possess the ability to listen to the others. They must be pioneering without the phobia of disappointment. They must possess the honesty and the devotion to do the correct things. They must be open-minded so as to try fresh ways of trying things. They must be team builders. They must possess the ability to listen and remain silent yet abreast with the on-goings. There are two factors that a leader must apply for effective leadership namely: consideration and initial structure. In consideration, the leader needs to be conscious about the affairs for his people and other interactions by various ways such as listening to their woes, indiscriminative because they are lower than him, doing them individual errands and being in a position to accept their suggestive contributions from them (pg 56).In initiating structure, the leader makes personal objectives so as to visualize the duty. This is realized by requesting members to adhere to certain protocols and regulations, castigate the poor duty performers, squeezing time to give heed to the problems of members and above all, matching the various doings of the members.
Organizational management is the orderly administration of ventures and projects in the aim of accomplishing the goals. The primary theories of leadership are: participative theory (requires the contribution of others); and great man theory (it is based on the notion that leaders are born and not made). Under dire straits a leader emerges as if magically and leads the others). There’s also Contingency theory (the style of leadership is determined by the environmental conditions) which is applied using the characteristics of the followers and the conditions of the situation. Behavioural theory (it proposes that someone can be coached to become a leader) is used by molding the leader through coaching. Trait theory suggests that the qualities of a leader are acquired through hereditary. This theory applies the naturally acquired traits such as self-confident and intelligent; situational theory which proposes that the characteristic of the situation determines which form of leadership shall be embraced and it is used by judging the specific situation.
Transformational theory suggests that followers are gained from the motivation given to the followers. To apply this theory, the leader creates a brand name; and transactional theory which gives rewards and punishments in the style of leadership. Among the strengths of the contemporary leadership model is that he should be able to pressure the members and set their standards .It requires multi-dimensional approach. The weaknesses are: unfussiness, expert prejudice, practical inflexibility and incapability to solve huge problems.
Yuki,G.(2010).Leadership in Organisations.New Jersey:Prentice Hall.
Robert, G. (2005). Contemporary strategy analysis. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Sara, P. (2010). The Positive Deviant:Sustainability Leadership in a Perverse World. London: Earthscan.
Seleshi, S. (2001). Organizational change and development in management control systems:process innovation for internal auditing and management accounting. Oxford: Emerald Group Publishing.
Sims Ronald, Q. (2005). Leadership:succeeding in the private,public and not-for-profit sectors. New York: M.E Sharpe.