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Leaders and Leadership: Study, Sources and Behaviors

Question One
There have been a lot of discussions on whether there is any relationship between leadership style and organization culture and whether the combination of the two can improve the performance of an organization (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008). One of these is the study carried out in the case of acute care hospitals. The research was carried out in a setting where the participants were from four of the largest acute care systems in New Jersey. It was assumed that these big hospitals are where organizational culture and leadership is very crucial. Also generalization could be gotten from the four big hospitals. The setting was in such a way that the participants in the sample represent a single organization which shares the same philosophy, mission and core values. This setting was to ensure that data collected does not vary due to different philosophies, missions and core values. The setting was standard and similar to every participant in the sample (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008). The setting was also in a way that the staff nurses who were included in the sample reported to the same nurse mangers. In addition to this both the staff nurses and nurse managers were employed in the same hospitals and same nursing units.
For every study/research, there are particular research questions which are to be answered and are the ones which help the researcher to collect data. In this study, the general research question which they tried to answer was whether there is a relationship between organizational culture and the leadership style of an organization. The other general research question was whether the leadership style which is in accordance to the organization culture can lead to optimum performance. In addition to these general questions, the study tried to answer a specific research question which was whether there existed a relationship between nursing manager’s leadership styles and the nursing unit’s organizational culture as perceived by staff nurses (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008)..

Question Two
According to the study, different leadership styles had different effects on the organizational culture. There was positive, moderately strong correlation between transformational leadership and organizational culture. Transactional leadership had a positive, weak correlation with organizational culture. Non-transactional laissez-faire had a negative correlation with organizational culture. Transformational leadership and organizational culture had a strong relationship which shows that the organization is effective.
Transformational leadership improves the practice of organizational culture traits. Nursing mangers who practice transformational leadership have been credited for having positive, desirable and flexible organizational culture in which mission and adaptability culture traits dominate. The reason as to why transformational leadership has a positive effect on organizational culture is because it is inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration where nursing mangers have the ability to energize, motivate and allow staff nurses to self actualize to achieve their potentials hence giving them the opportunity to work within their self interest (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008). This is why it has a positive effect on organizational culture since staff nurses are given the opportunity to practice organizational culture traits out of their own interest.
The negative or weak correlation and leadership between non-transactional laissez-faire and organizational culture shows that, this kind of leadership style does not promote the practice organizational culture traits (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008). Non-transactional laissez-faire leadership does not allow significant interaction between leaders and employees which means that ideas are not exchanged between the two groups and therefore the practice of organizational culture traits is not effective. In addition, the lack of significant interaction between the leaders and employees does not shape or create any type of nursing unit organizational culture. However, the ineffective interaction which is brought about by non-transactional laissez-faire leadership leads to poor and inadequate organizational performance.
Transactional leadership style has a positive but weak correlation with organizational culture. This shows that, although this type of leadership style may encourage practice of organizational culture traits, the extent is very small. It leads to a situation where, employees may adhere to the organizational culture traits only at particular times but not at others. The performance of a nursing unit practicing transactional leadership may not have a better performance than a nursing unit practicing transformational leadership. This is to mean that, transformational leadership is the leadership style which has very little positive effect on organizational culture (Nemetz-Mills, 2007a). It has a weak correlation with involvement and consistency traits which are very crucial when it comes to organizational culture. However its positive correlation shows that it has some aspect of a positive effect organizational culture as it includes the factor of contingent reward which my motivate employees to practice organizational culture traits. It also has a positive effect since it encourages involvement and consistency (Casida J., Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, 2008). This is to say that it has a positive effect on the practice of organizational culture traits but it cannot be successful in all organizations.
Question Three
In this study, one is able to find out whether there is a relationship between leadership style and organizations culture. However to study further one can study using staff from different organizations to know if this is applicable in other organizations apart from the nursing unit chosen (McNamara, 2004). One can also study further to know which determines the other. This will be based on whether it is the organization culture which determines the leadership style or it is the leadership style which determines the organization culture. In other words one can study causality.
Casida J., & Genevieve Pinto-Zipp. (2008). Leadership-Organizational Culture Relationship in Nursing Units of Acute Care Hospitals. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 7-15
McNamara, C. (2004). Overview of Leadership in Organizations. Retrieved on May 4, 2011 from
Nemetz-Mills, P. (2007a). Leadership Basics. Chapter 14. Eastern Washington University. Retrieved on April 4, 2011 from
Nemetz-Mills, P. (2007b). Leadership Issues for the 21st Century. Chapter 15. Eastern Washington University. Retrieved on May 4, 2011 from
Schein, E. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, Jossey Bass.
Schein, E. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, Jossey Bass.
Sergiovanni, T & Corbally, J. (1986). Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice. U.S, Illini Books.

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