Human Rights can be defined as the unrestricted freedom and “free-will” that any human being is expected to have regardless of his or her reputation, societal class, or any political perception. Among the rights are the human basic necessities like: right to render life, water, food and shelter, stand-off liberty of life situations such as religion.
On 10th December in 1948, during the Annual General Meeting (A.G.M) the United Nations drew out an article that precisely detailed the human rights. The article was called Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration was signed by sovereign countries thereby pledging their membership. The main purpose of the U.N of the Declaration was to ensure that the human rights were observed. There has been other subsequent Human Rights Acts but the central theme remains the same: to ensure that the human rights must be protected by the law, to sear into the minds of people that attitude that every human being does possess the liberty to opt and is of the same caliber in value and rights with everyone else.
The Human Rights
The Declaration of Human Rights was divided into distinct segments that were referred to as Human Rights Articles. The articles are : (1)All people are given birth to and of the same caliber in terms of dignity and rights.(2)Prior to the human rights detailed therein, Declaration, all people do posses equal privileges and liberties without basing them in regard complexion, country of origin, gender, racial, religion, political perception or any other prejudice whatsoever.(3)All people are entitled to similar privilege to life, freedom and safety.(4)It’s against the protocol of the United Nations to hold another on forced servitude or enslavement and that the slur of enslavement should be abolished regardless of the type.(5)It’s against the law enacted by the Declaration to maim, subject anyone in any painful way or chastisement.
(6)Everyone has the entitlement of acknowledgment as a human by law regardless of where he or she is.(7)All people are entitled to indiscriminative personal safety and against it or any other such forms of provocation.(8)All people are entitled to helpful prevention against the abuse of their rights as stated down by the constitution.(9)Nobody must be roughed up with illogical apprehension, hold into custody or deported.(10)All people are ensured by the constitutional law for a considerate legal justice if filed suit against him with criminal or any unlawful charges.(11)If any person is charged in the court of law for unlawful offences, he retains innocence until the time that he or she shall be proved to be guilty at a court session that he shall have all defense guarantees at his or her disposal; Nobody is supposed to filed a penal suit against under the basis that an offence was committed that did not comprise a severe offence either nationally or internationally prior to the law at the time of the offence commitment. Also, there must be a severe sentence or punishment should be mete out to the offender that isn’t in accordance to the one that reigned at the time of the offence.
(12)A person is neither supposed to be messed about with the intrusion to their privacy, residential, home nor the destruction of self-dignity or reputation. All people are entitled to safety and protection against such demeaning acts.(13)All people are entitled to unrestricted movements that transcend geographical borders; all people are entitled to leave and arrive at their own countries at their won will.(14)Threatened with persecution, all people are entitled to the pleasure of going into self-exile; The right may be appealed to if the nature of the persecutions are as a result of reasons that are non-political or in any case, dissimilar to the aims and doctrines of the United Nations. (15)The option of nationality is entitled to all people; it’s unconstitutional to withdraw the entitlement of nationality or refusal for any person the nationality.(16)It’s the liberty and privilege of both gender who are adults (over the age of 18) to found a marriage and also possess equal rights at the juncture its formed or disbanded; marriage are founded by two marriage partners with their approval; families form the backbone of the society and are therefore entitled to the provision of a shield of security by the society.
(17)It’s the liberty of all people to possess material property and to enter into alliances, associations or organizations; it’s against the constitutional law to dispossess anyone of his possession.(18)All people are entitled to the liberty of expression and other perceptions inclusive of converting of religion, self principles regardless of whether he or she does it solely or communally, secretly or openly and to impact his or her religion stand off, principles in schooling, adoring and adorning.(19)All people are entitled to the liberty of perceptions and perspectives and to share their principles and beliefs with the public and also to look for and get with no forms of any obstructions.(20)All people do posses the liberty to serene congregations and other relations; there are no rules and regulations as to who will or will not belong to which alliance o organization.
(21)All people possess the liberty to feature in their country’s administrative either directly or through third parties; all entities do possess the privilege to the accessibility of social amenities in their nations; the government or the administrating body will be decided by the public through free and fair elections that shall be held via the secret voting elections or any other ways of that caliber.(22)All persons constituent the society and are en titled to social security and awareness of which should be done by the national or international administrations and all the possessions of the society or country must be at his or her disposal and liberated advancement of his characters.(23)All persons have the privilege to employment of which must be optional and they should be subjected to harsh working conditions and they should also have the immune against joblessness; the persons should be entitled to indiscriminative payments and even work; all working persons are entitled to just and approved payments that will ensure that he and his immediate family render valuable life and have also other propping up means of social shield; everyone is entitled to become a member of trade unions or organizations so as to defend personal interests.
(24)Everyone is entitled to the privilege of relaxation and other forms of pleasure that entail logical reduction of working period and often working offs that are being paid.(25)Mother and children are entitled to special protection with children being protected regardless of illegitimacy; all people are entitled to healthy lives and that of their immediate family members and special attention when senile, handicapped, widowed, sick and joblessness.(26)Everyone is entitled to the free basic education and also the easy accessibility to higher education when needed; schooling be centralized to character progression and the embodiment of human liberties and that shall be in accordance with the purpose of the U.N.; guardians and parents to opt for the type their off springs shall get.
(27)A person has the liberty to take part in the cultural projects and to get the privilege and to participate in its advancement; a person is entitled to defend his accomplishments against any form abuse if that person is the creator.(28)Both locally and overseas, a person is privileged to the Declaration that was enacted by the U.N. wherever they applies.(29)All people have the tasks in the society wherever their help is achievable; the Declaration should not in any way, perform the liberties and the human privileges against the intentions of the U.N.(30)The central theme in the Declaration may not be viewed as mean to any specific nation or group of people and nothing should be performed as in tainting the liberties and the privileges detailed.
Challenges of Human Rights in U.S
U.S Constitution and Amendments is the body that constitutionally protects the human rights in the U.S. The U.S government is an advocate of human rights, yet, as though ironically, it’s one of the perpetrators of human rights. Human Rights abuse in U.S mainly occurs in the legal and anti-terrorism systems. Prior to a research carried out by the Amnesty International, there was found out to have been almost 1100 executions in the U.S. with the Texas state topping the list with 379 executions and Virgin ranking second with 98 as the period between 1976 to 2006.Also there were reported to have been 19 executions that were meted out to underage offenders. With a figure of inmates figuring approximately 2.25 million, there have been reported rampant sexual abuses with more than 20% of the inmates claiming that6 they had been pressured into sexual activities.
The petty crime offenders are detained of which their crimes are non-brutal. There has been excessive use of force by the police when arresting offenders. In a specific case, it was reported that an offence suspect was tasered for almost ten times by the police before he succumbed to the torture and died. While fighting terror acts, it is the sector that the U.S government practices torture the most. In some U.S jail such as Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay, it has reported that the prisoners are subjected to severe enhanced techniques and weatherboarding (where the subject is tortured by drawing in water to their lungs) during interrogations.
In Abu Ghraib prison, the prisoners have been subjected to inhumane acts such as crawling while carrying American soldiers and at the same time barking like dogs, the prisoners being piled one on another when they are nude, masturbation and electrical shocks on their penises and fingers, sexual molestation, intimidation with threats of death and an incident where the American soldiers are reported to have phosphorous on a prisoner.
The U.S has bore the blunt of criticize for the cruelty meted out to prisoners where they are reported to be subjected to cold air and unfavorable weather in their nudity form. There are other inhumane methods that6 they have been subjected to such as serious gunshots and being sprayed by rubber bullets. Other gross violations of human rights include the execution of Sadaam Hussein and the recent execution of Osama Bin Laden.
The effectiveness and ineffective of U. N.
The effectiveness of the U. N.
The U.N body is effective in many ways such as where it fights against violence, caters food aid and shelter. The U.N supplies canned, packed dry food and shelter, in form of canvas tents to human rights victims. The U.N also restores peaceful order in war-torn countries through peacekeeping missions: UN Peacekeepers. An example is the peacekeeping mission that it conducted in Ivory Coast during the disputed elections between Outtara and Gbagbo. The U.N also does broker power (diplomacy) between two warring political parties by trying to bring them together. An example is that happened in Kenya during the 2008 post election violence where the U.N representative proposed a coalition government between the two warring political parties.
The Ineffectiveness of the U. N.
The U.N has been unable to bring together some warring parties such as Arab-Israel and the Israel-Palestinian (the latter war having raged for more than 34 years).The U.N has been ineffective in the suppression of some countries such as India and Iran in their nuclear weapons programs. The U.N has granted powers to the nations that have won war such as Germany, Russia and France. Being given such powers, makes them think,”…they have not only been vindicated but also their war has been validated” (Wakeley, 2003). The U.N has also been not in any position to stop terrorism in nations like Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Yemen among other nations. It’s ineffective in ending war groups such as Tamil Tigers, Al Qaeda, Al Shabaab, and L.R.A among other insurgent groups.
The U.N body has also been ineffective in salvaging the failing and failed states such as Sudan and Afghanistan. It has also been ineffective in fighting against armed criminals in Sudan like in the recent incident where bandits attacked the United Nations World Food Program and made away with the food donations.
A Human Rights Approach to end Terrorism
Killing the leader of terrorism can’t end terrorism. This is because when the leader is killed, he becomes a martyr. Killing the terrorists is none the wiser because, the society from which the terrorists come from will recruit others. “…by murdering the hater, you don’t murder the hate…” A certain American-based group conducted a survey on terrorist groups and found that it only 7% of them that were fought violently against ended. Therefore, the best approach to fight the terror groups is through human rights (Alex, 2010).
So as to be in a position to end terrorism great need is needed to understand what causes it, for example the use of heavy-handed polices on counter-terrorism,”…The indiscriminate arrest and detention of young Asian men has helped alienate, marginalize and criminalize the Muslim communities…” (Dr. Ghayasuddin Siddiqui, Great Britain Muslim Parliament).Recognizing the global values, can be great in solving the terrorism. An example is given whereby Iraqi terrorists held captive exotic hostages and were captured on video having being worn orange jumpsuits like the ones worn by Guantanamo Bay prisoners.”…Removing hypocrisy will aid in removing animosity.”(Effective counter-terrorism)
Alex, C. (2010). Human Rights in the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism:Commonwealth Approaches:the United Kingdom,Canada,Australia and New Zealand. New York: Springer.