Human Rights are liberties and ‘flexibilities’ that any human being is entitled to have regardless of his social status or influence. They range from the right live, basic human needs such as food, water and shelter, freedom of expression and liberty to choose religion. More so, these human rights were coined and the paraphrased over and over again from the slogan that was wrote down by Thomas Jefferson after the U.S gained independence, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”
The General Assembly of United Nations that was held on 10th December in 1948 enacted laws and pushed all countries who have the U.N membership to make public, distribute the text that contained them, expose, illustrate in the educational institutions and basing upon the perceptions of politics or geographical borders. The World Human Rights day is held annually on 10th December. Most remarkably, the strategy of the U.S foreign department has spelt a mighty swing of luck pendulum on the Human Rights as it has taken the sole feat of promoting and searing into the minds of the people the esteem of human rights. The government of U.S is conscious that if the human rights are adhered to, people co-exist in harmony, shun hostility, suppress crimes and office abuses and empower democracies.
There were many laws that were enacted by the United Nations. The laws are categorised under sections that the U.N called articles. The laws are still enacted but we shall skip nimbly on those that are published. In the first article: every single entity is born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood, In the second article: all people are entitled to the rights and freedoms set forth in that declaration and sop not be classified on the basis of political ambitions or perspectives, gender, skin complexion, country of origin, religion standoff or any other prejudice whatsoever. The third article voices out that all human beings humane right to live, have freedom of expression and are entitled to render secure lives. In the fourth article: no person is supposed to be held in captivity and be subjected to any form of slavery or forceful serving of another human being and that the ugly slur of slave drive shall be suppressed and shunned in all types. In the fifth article: no person should undergo any cruel form of suffering or painful anguish.(David,2006) The sixth article soberly pipes it that wherever a human being goes, he is entitled to be accepted as a person without the bending of the law. The seventh article chips in that no one is above the law and should be offered security by it against any or all the forms of prejudice. The eighth article jumps onto the fray that all people are entitled to efficient solutions by means of proficient state court rulings against his or her human rights infringement as described in the penal codes of the constitution. The ninth law says that no one is entitled to illogical detains or banishments. In precise terms, the ninth article says that all human beings are entitled to just court rulings by sovereign panels in the pursuance of the infringed rights and responsibilities and also any illegal indictments on him or her. The eleventh article explains vividly that everyone who has been suspected with the breaking is termed as an innocent until his or her crimes are proven and he is found to be guilty of the offences on which he had all the assurance that are vital in his defence. The second part of the articles says that no one should be subjected to guilty court indictments under the basis of any deed or error that is not highlighted in the penal code of the national constitution or worldwide law upon the crime commitment. In concise terms, the twelveth puts it that no one shall be interfered with the personal privacy, family members, residence or breach of social status and personal dignity .The penal code in the constitution bears the duty too protect everyone against such infringements. In precise terms, the thirteen the article (divided into two sections) says that everyone is entitled to move anywhere unrestricted and also to reside as per personal wishes; the second section says that everyone is entitled to leave his motherland country and return to his or her accord. In the fourteenth article, it says that everyone is entitled to get and take pleasure in safe haven in other countries to deter persecutions. Its other section of the article, says that personal right might not be summoned if the crimes committed were not in any way incited by politics or dissimilar to the intentions and doctrines of the United Nations. In the fifteenth article it the brief few sums it all, that everyone is entitled to nationality and that no one shall be denied the nationality or changing it. The sixteenth article pipes that people above eighteen years old, are entitled to marry and start their own families undeterred by religion stand offs, nationality, racial factors and are bound to have equal rights on their marriages and even upon its termination. The second section says that marriages are founded with the consent of the concerned couples. The third section says that families for the backbone of the society and are supposed to be rendered secured by the entire state and also the society. The seventeenth article says that everyone is entitled to solely possess property and also in alliances; and that no one must be subjected to subjective dispossession of his or her property. In the eighteenth article : everyone is entitled the liberty of deliberation, principles and also religion standoff and also the freedom to alter it whether solely or in the public domain, openly or confidentially and to use the religion standoff in schooling, exercise, adoration and also performance. Nineteenth article: everyone is entitled to the liberty of outlook and judgment and to embrace the outlooks without intrusion and also to search for, get and pass on the notions via the media outlets undeterred. The twentieth article puts it that everyone is entitled to the unrestricting of serene congregations and no one is bound to feature in a particular organization. Article twenty-one, is divided into three sections; the first section says that everyone is entitled to feature in the administration, either directly or stood for by a third party; the second section says that all entities are entitled to one and the same rights in the sector that deals with the public affairs in his or her country; and the third section says that the deduction of the citizen elite shall be the helm of the administration and that shall be voiced in seasonal and free and fair voting conducted using the secret ballot method or other voting methods of that calibre. The twenty-second article says that all persons that constituent the society are entitled to social security and also enlightened about the reasonably priced, communal and cultural civil liberties essential for his reputation and uncharged advance of his persona. The twenty-third article on human rights is sub-divided into four sections: all persons are entitled to the privilege of working and the liberty of employment options and also to friendly working situations and shield to joblessness ;the second section says that everyone is entitled to unprejudiced work payments that are proportional to the work done; her third section says that all the working entities are entitled to friendly compensation so as to see to it that the person and his family are served with communal shield; and the forth section says that all persons are entitled to feature in and have alliances in trade unions so as to shield their welfare. In the twenty-fourth article it sears into the minds that all persons are entitled the privilege to take vacations and enjoy themselves and also sensible work time hours and seasonal paid vacations. (George, 1940)The twenty-fifth article is divided into two sections and the first one says that all persons are entitled the privilege to a criterion life sufficient for the vigour of them and that of their adjacent family members among them the basic necessities such as meals, shelter and health check and secure shields in case of joblessness, senility ,handicapped and being deceased; the second part pipes that the weak members of the society, mothers and children, must be given exceptional concern and support and that children are entitled the social care regardless of illegitimacy.(Brian,2002 )The article twenty-sixth says that all persons are entitled to free basic education and all the forms of advanced learning be within reach; the person shall learn for his own gains and shall enhance mutuality among other countries, religions and the duty embrace their mission and vision of the U.N.; and the third section says that guardians have the liberty to figure out the form of education that shall be given to their offspring. The twenty-ninth article says that all persons are entitled to take participation in enlightening societal practices and to enjoy the bonus that is offered by they practices ;and that all persons are entitled the liberty to shield the ethical ambitions that come as about from technical, arty that he is the one who accomplished. The twenty-eighth article pipes out that all persons have got the right to the communal and overseas system and the dividends that it offers wherever the rights apply. (Anthony, 2010)The twenty-ninth article says that all persons are entitled to that can make him develop his reputation and the human rights are not bound to be carried out so as to fulfil the aims and strategies of the U.N.
In highlights, there are other human rights bodies:
Optional Protocol to the Conventional on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (OP-CRPD)
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
These are the rules and regulation that administrate sovereign countries or states and the way that they co-exist. The international law falls under three categories namely: public international law, private international law and supranational law. There are realms that fall under the international law:
International criminal law: this law try to find out and control the mode of conduct of sovereign countries, associations and single entities. It controls and brings to book those behind gargantuan crimes such as war crimes and genocides.
International human rights law: this law was enacted as in to curb war dreadfulness during the Second World War the law seeks to bind individual countries to recognize human rights.
War law: this law seeks to control the ghastly acts of armed clashes that are between states. The law also seeks to administrate the legitimacy of war rationalization and the legitimacy of behaviour during the time of war.
The public international law: this law features in the co-existence of individuals, independent countries, overseas associations (such as United Nations Environmental Program, International Criminal Court) and other forms of militia movements. The public international law is governed by three regulations that are derived from: customary international laws (which are the facets of the law that are got from custom. Among the examples of this type of law have been are Hague and Geneva conferences)
Peremptory norm: this form of the international law is the basic strategy reached by the international society and it entails no form of refusal to be abounding to is prohibited. The peremptory norm shuns slave drives, piracies and mass murders. The examples that feature in this category of law are persecution of young offenders (persecuting perpetrators who committed crimes’ when they were underage that is below eighteen years) and inflicting torture (and the international community prohibits it and instead requires all the states to probe, sue and indict the persons that had at once time practised torture)
Treaties : this are accords or agreements that are ventured by the practisers of the international law, independent countries and overseas associations and they fasten the sovereign countries to themselves by the use of written words and it recognizes those involved and their mutual relationships. The examples include:
Reservations: accords that contend or to amend the permissible responsibility and its consequences on the reserving sovereign country.)
Amendments: this call for the sovereign states to peruse the endorsement methods and the country is connected by stipulations settled upon.
Protocols: these are treaties that in turn strengthen another fore treaty and (or) modify it. A good example is the Kyoto Protocol that modified another protocol, United Nations Framework Convection on Climate Change (Unfcc)
This constituent of the international law is based on the limits of the mutual privileges linking two or more countries or states. They are categorized under global courts (like the International Criminal Court -ICC) and Community blocks (like the East African Community-EAC)
Anthony, A. (2010). Handbook of Internatiuonal Law. London: Cambridge University Press.
Brian, O. (2002). Human rights : concept and context. Ontario: Broadview Press.
David, F. (2006). Human rights in international relations. London: Cambridge University Press.
George, W. (1940). Internatinal law. Forgotten Books.