During the period of early childhood, mastering fine motor skills is a very important process needed for physical and cognitive development. However, for a number of different reasons, there are some children who do not develop at the same pace as an average child. It is important for parents and physicians to recognize children who are not on track developmentally because the earlier the cause of the delay can be determined, the earlier parents can start working with the child to correct or minimize these deficits. Often, the earlier the children begins to work on their developmental deficits, the greater the advancements they can make.
By the age of three, a child should be able to do the following:
- Use a spoon by themselves
- Draw a vertical and horizontal line
- String large beads
- Snip paper with scissors
- Roll clay or play dough into a “snake”
Conduct an Internet search using the two phrases listed below. Your results will help you better understand the kind of milestones that are used to assess the development of fine motor skills in young children.
- Fine motor skills milestones
- Child development milestones
Using the module readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research observational and motor learning and activities that can be used to help develop motor skills. Then, address the following:
- Describe in detail how a young child’s fine motor skills are developed—making sure to include the theory of motor-skill learning that best fits this situation.
- Explain whether any motor tasks or skills can be accomplished via observational learning. Justify your response.
- Now, consider a situation in which a young child (3–4 years old) is developmentally delayed in fine motor skill development. Create a strategy which would help the child strengthen his or her fine motor skills.
- You can find a number of activities online which purport to help develop these skills. From a theoretical viewpoint, be sure to explain how these activities will aid a child’s fine motor skill development. Make sure that you reference at least one peer-reviewed article in addition to any Web sites you find and describe these activities as part of your development strategy.
Write a 3–4-page paper in Word format. It should be double-spaced and in 12 point, Times New Roman font with regular one-inch margins and free of typographical and grammatical errors. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Be sure to include a title page with a running head and reference page. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M5_A1.doc.
By Monday, December 7, 2015, deliver your assignment to the M5: Assignment 1 Dropbox.
Grading Criteria and Rubric
|Assignment 2 Grading Criteria||
|Describe how a young child’s fine motor skills are developed and include the theory of motor-skill learning that best fits your chosen situation. (Course Objective [CO] 3)||
|Justify whether any motor tasks/skills can be accomplished via observational learning. (CO3)||
|Create a strategy to help strengthen the fine motor skills of a young child (3–4 years old) who is developmentally delayed. (CO4)||
|Identify (via the Internet) at least three activities that can be used to help develop these motor skills and describe these activities as part of the development strategy to propose. (CO4)||
|Explain, from a theoretical point of view, how these activities would aid a child’s fine motor skills development, making sure to reference at least one peer-reviewed article. (CO3)||
Usage and Mechanics (16)
APA Elements (24)
Discussion—Cognitive Development in Animals
Washoe is one of the most famous chimpanzees because of her ability to use sign language to communicate. She was able to communicate approximately 350 words and was even observed teaching her son sign language. Even more impressive was that Washoe was able to combine these words into hundreds of logical combinations with different meanings that were not taught, but rather created by herself. You can learn more about human cognitive development by considering Washoe’s use of sign language, as well as the information gained from the study of other animals such as chimps, rats, etc.
Respond to the following:
- Specifically, what can we learn about human cognitive development through the study of these animals?
- Thinking back to the discussion in M1: Assignment 2, are there any ethical issues that arise from using animals to study human development? Consider what you have learned about the inherent differences between animals and humans.
- Why do researchers make use of animals instead of humans for their experiments on development?
Write your initial response in 2–3 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.
By Sunday, December 6, 2015, post your response to the appropriate Discussion Area. Through Wednesday, December 9, 2015, review and comment on at least two peers’ responses. In your responses, consider the following:
- Are there any strengths or limitations noted by your peers that you did not include in your own response? If so, what are they?
- Are there any other examples of reasoning abilities that you can add to your peers’ responses? If so, what are they?
- Are there other examples of reasoning abilities that are found to exist only in a small number of species? If yes, indicate what they are.