Explain the laws and rights that govern – or should govern – human beings and societies are inherent in human nature and can be found through using human reason.

In an essay of three to four pages in length you are to select one of the central principles of the Enlightenment (see below) and apply it to major events or readings in the course from the second half of the semester. Our readings from the second half of the semester are Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment and David Mason’s textbook A Concise History of Modern Europe from page 93 to the end of the book. The major events and periods covered in the second half of the semester are European Imperialism, Russia in the nineteenth century, World War I, interwar Europe, the rise of fascism, World War II, the Cold War, and the revolutions in Eastern Europe of 1989-1991.

In your essay you should argue whether the principle you select was upheld or rejected in the course of events or, if you write about Crime and Punishment, in the course of the novel.
Your essay should have a clear thesis, which you state in the opening paragraph of your paper.

Please double-space and use 12-point font. I expect that you will not need to cite sources other than those we have used in this course. For citations (referring in your text to materials that you have used to help you in writing the paper, or for when you quote from a source) you may use the Chicago/Turabian, APA, or MLA citation styles. Information on these can be found on the UNH Library page (see http://libguides.newhaven.edu/content.php?pid=684861&sid=5681863).
Central principles of the Enlightenment as discussed in HIST 1102
1. Confidence in human reason and in the ability of human beings to think through and rationally solve problems.
2. Men and women are fundamentally and inherently good, not evil.
3. The laws and rights that govern – or should govern – human beings and societies are inherent in human nature and can be found through using human reason. This is the principle of natural law.
4. People should be ruled by laws and not by rulers. This principle is the rule of law.
5. Sovereignty resides within the people.
6. Freedom of the individual is of central significance.

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