Explain the degrees of freedom mean to working with novice exercisers?


For the following assignment you are to prepare responses to each question presented. Make certain to cite your references internally per APA format, particularly where you refer to a study or primary research. Include at least three external references in your essays (total). You may choose where you would like to use these. Two of these must be peer reviewed journal or outside text sources. Otherwise, commercial publications and websites are fine to use.


Include one title page and one reference page in APA format.

Head each question clearly. This assures you that your answers are easy to see and will be awarded full credit.

Each answer is expected to be composed of concise, relevant, and well written statements. The exceptions where a list format is acceptable are clearly stated.

Each response should be an application statement. In other words, think of this assignment as if you are telling another student, employee, colleague, client, athlete, or patient how each of the principles can be seen or applied in the real world. Essentially, you are providing a rationale for what you are doing (this happens in the field; people want to know what, why, and how).


Q1 – Principle of specificity: only the muscles trained will respond.

Provide a concrete example of the principle of specificity to athletics/sports preparation, personal fitness training, or rehabilitation. Choose one exercise and explain why this exercise meets the goal(s) of the program. Ten points.

Q2 – Degrees of Freedom: the greater the number of joints involved in a movement/exercise the more difficult it is to execute safely and correctly.

a. Explain why the degrees of freedom are true from both an anatomical definition and operation definition (above) perspective. Five points.

b. Explain the degrees of freedom mean to working with novice exercisers? In other words, would it be appropriate to start a new exerciser with alternating walking lunges with overhead presses? Why or why not? 2.5 points.

Q3 – Overload Principle: you must overload the system (muscles) for it to respond by growing in size and strength.

a. Choose one exercise and give two different examples of how it can be made more difficult to overload the system. Five points.

b. Although light walking is a great place for people to start and can be part of a fitness program, explain why walking doesn’t meet the criteria of overload for fit persons. 2.5 points.

Q4 – Explain the origin of the muscle names below based on how we categorize (classify or name) muscles: pectoralis major and biceps femoris. Five points.

Q5 – One of the greatest obstacles we face in the field is that of the “weakest link”. Any action/movement/exercise is limited by the weakest muscle in the entire group. For example, a lateral deltoid raise is limited by the amount of weight that the supraspinatus can lift. When you lean to one side and execute the lateral raise at 30 degrees you take the supraspinatus out of the equation and thus can overload the medial deltoid.

State another example of where action is limited by the weakest link. Explain which muscle is the weakest link and why. Explain how you would develop an exercise program to remedy the issue of the weakest link using the example you stated? Ten points.

NOTE: you may use your forum response so long as you are certain that answer was correct.

Q6 – Explain what a motor unit is made up of. Describe the role of the synapse, ACH, threshold, and synaptic cleft in the production of movement. Ten points.

Q7 – Define the two types of motor units and explain how these two different classifications of muscles are utilized differently in endurance activities versus speed and high force activities. Ten points.

Q8 – For the following popular exercises state the primary joint action. For example, the elbow extends during the concentric phase of a triceps overhead extension. NOTE: you must know how to classify movements into the concentric (power) versus eccentric (preparatory) phase based on muscle action to do this assignment correctly. Five points each “a” through “f”

a. Shoulder joint. Lateral deltoid raise. Concentric phase.

b. Hip joint. Squat. Eccentric phase.

c. Knee joint. Squat. Concentric phase.

d. Elbow joint. Biceps curl. Eccentric phase.

e. Ankle joint. Gastrocnemius raise. Concentric phase.

f. Elbow joint. Triceps kickback. Concentric phase.

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