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ENVIRONMENTALRACISM

ENVIRONMENTALRACISMPrerequisite:CompletionofGEbasicsubjects(BlockA)andOneG.E.BlockB1course.Useofepidemiologyinenvironmentalhealth.Morbidityandmortalityincommunitiesofcolorandlower economicstatusduetodisproportionatedistributionofenvironmentalcontaminants.CHS370/HS 370EnvironmentalRacism? Spring2013? Roberto Flores Ph.D? AdjunctAssistantProfessor? Dept.ofChicanoStudies? Robertof2@socal.rr.comRemember:Thissectionofthecourseistaughtfullyonline.!Environmental Racism?Definition:Epidemiology Examinationofthelinkbetweenhuman exposure and health outcomesHumanExposureInformationRiskassessmentEstimation ofthelikelihood, magnitude anduncertainty ofhealth risksassociatedwith environmentalexposures?Theintentionalsitingofhazardouswastesites,landfills,incineratorsandpollutingindustriesincommunities inhabitedmainlybyAfricanAmericans,Hispanics,NativeAmericans,Asians,migrantworkers andtheworkingpoor.StatusandtrendsEvaluation of historicalpatterns Current statusand possibleFuturechangeinhumanexposuresand/orhealth outcomes??Route??Magnitude??Duration??Frequency??distribution??Mostexposed??Temporalaspects??Geographic aspects??Demographic aspectsRiskmanagement Determinationofwhich,healthrisksareunacceptableand whattodoaboutthem?Thesefacilitiesmaybetiedtoacommunityíseconomicsurvivaltherebycompromisingresidentsíabilitytoopposeìlocallyundesirablelanduses.îImportantusesof humanexposureinformation intheassessment andmanagement ofenvironmentalhealth risks (Sextonetal.)http://www.ehponline.org/members/1995/Suppl-3/sex ton-full.htmlMeasuringEnvironmentalRacism EnvironmentalRacism:Whydoesit occur?How doesonegoabout determiningenvironmentalracismexists?I. Whatvariablesmatter?Independent??Relationshipbetweensocialmovements,industry,laborandtechnologyvariablesDependent variablesEpidemiologyONLINERaceand class(income,education, occupation) arecriticalvariables toexamine.II. ObserveEffectsA. Wherearepolluting facilitieslocated?Wherearepesticides ortoxinsdisposed of? Inotherwords,whatpatternscanbeobservedintermsofìsitingîoffacilities, dumping oftoxins,clustering, etc.(riskfactors,exposure)B. Whateffectsdoesìsitingîoftoxicwastehaveoncommunities ofcolorintermsofqualityoflifeandoccurrenceofadversehealtheffects:morbidityrate&mortalityrate=epidemiological profile ofcommunitiesexposedtowaste,toxins etc.III. Epidemiology examinesrisk,morbidity,mortalityIntheLosAngelesbasin,exposuretopollution fromcaremissionsiscorrelatedwithmorecasesofasthmain children.IV. Assessments/ActivitiesClickto seeCancerinLABasinHowdoesenvironmentalpollution affectthecancerratesthroughout theLABasin???TheEnvironmentalMovementandEnvironmentalJusticeMovementsprovidedifferent assessmentsandsolutionsforcommunities toaddressEnvironmentalRacism??Science,research&technologycentraltodebatesandsolutions?Health&theenvironment??epidemiologyEnvironmentalismandPolicyPreservation??Environmentalpolicyisrootedintwocompetingperspectivesabouttheenvironment:preservationandconservation??TwoleadingfiguresinfluencingearlyU.S.governmentenvironmentalpolicyinclude?Sierra Clubfounder JohnMuir(1838-1914).Activist.proposedwildlifepreservationandadvocatedfornationalparks?GiffordPinchot(1865-1946.Policy.HeadofU.S.ForestryService(1905-1910);hebelievedinJohnMuir,totherightofpresidentTheodoreRoosevelt,convincedhimtoprotect wildernessland.“Ifyouthinkaboutallthegainsoursocietyhasmade,fromindependencetonow,itwasn’tgovernment.Itwas activism.Peoplethink,’Oh,TeddyRooseveltestablishedYosemiteNationalPark,whatagreatpresident.’BS.ItwasJohnMuirwhoinvitedRooseveltoutandthenconvincedhimtoditchhissecurity andgocamping.ItwasMuir,anactivist,asingleperson.”–PatagoniafounderandoutdoorenthusiastYvonChouinardinarecentSierraMagazineinterviewhttp://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/Quarter coin2005conservationandscientificmanagementofresourcesforhumanuseorprofithttp://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/graphics/roosvelt_muir_front.jpgGovernmentAgencies&ScientificManagement?U.S.ForestryService?GiffordPinchotbelievedthatscientificknowledgeneededtobeappliedtomanagementofnaturalresources.Efficiencywasthe goal.?Inhisview,sciencecouldprovideanindependentvoicecapableofmoderatingbetweenprofitmotivesofindustryandtoomuchgovernmentcontrol.ControlofNature: Science &Progress?Trustintechnologytoadvanceeconomicgrowth?Burgeoningindustriesrequirelotsofnaturalresources?Growingpopulationandurbanizationrequirehighervolumeoffoodproduction?Pesticideskeytoìcontrolofnatureîandnationalprogress?DDTchemicalwidely usedtocontrolinsects;higheragriculturaloutputSilentSpring:PesticidesandHealth??PublicationofRachelCarsonísbookìSilentSpringîin1962brings ecologicalawarenesstonationalpublic attention.??CarsoncritiquesuseofDDTandenumeratesvariousharmfuleffectson floraandfauna andthelastingimpactonsoil, waterandairquality–morecritically ontheviability andvitality ofourfoodchain.??Sheconnectsdiseaseinthenaturalenvironmenttotheprevalenceofillnessesin humans??Callsforlessaggressivepestcontrolmethodstopreventthedegradationoftheenvironment??DDTwasbannedintheU.S.in1972GovernmentGovernment Oversight??EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyestablishedin1970??Citizen inputwasveryimportanttothisnewregulatoryagency??Stillmuchoftheregulationsfavorbureaucraticexpertknowledgesystemswhichdonítalwaysprotectresidents affectedbyharmfulfacilitiesortoxicsubstances??Poorerandlesseducatedgroupsaremostlyexcludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationî??SeeWhyEPAwas established?Environmental Justice Movements??ConsolidationofanetworkofAfricanAmericanenvironmentalactivistsandorganizationssince1982thrutheUnitedChurchofChrist.??MinorityEnvironmentalstruggleshavealonghistory.??NativeAmericancommunitiespointoutthattheyhavebeenengagedinenvironmentalstruggles sincetheirlandswereinvadedbyEuropeans.??MajorenvironmentalprotectionorganizationshavebeenestablishedliketheSierraClub(1898);buttheyhavebeentypicallyfocusedonconservation/preservationissuesandhaveoftenstayedawayfromthestrugglesofpoor communities.http://www.macalester.edu/americanstudies/afamconf7.html RicardoLevinsMorales,NorthlandPosterCollectiveNativeAmericansandEnvironmentalRacism??WinonaLaDuke,anativeAmericanscholar,describes thesituationinthesecommunitiesintermsofresourceextraction,dumpingofnuclearwasteandothersubstances,clearcutting(deforesting).??Industrialdevelopmentinitiativeshaveìdevouredîlands, rivers,speciesand entireculturesintheirpath.??Theseìinvasiveindustrialinterventionsî(Laduke1999)threaten notonlythosecommunitiesbutalsobiodiversity.Native AmericansandEnvironmentalRacism??ThelossofbiodiversitythreatenstheexistenceofNativeAmericans.??Attentionto thelossofbiodiversityinthiscommunityraisesissues ofpreservationofculturaldiversityandfuturegenerationsofnativesandnon-natives??ClickNavajohttp://www.latimes.com/extras/navajo/Day1/UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping??MotherísofEastLosAngeles,Santa Isabel?MELASiorìLasMELASî??Opposedincinerators, pipelineandprisonproposals forEastLosAngeles??AuroraCastillo,a MELASactivistputitsuccintly:UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumpingGoldmanEnvironmental Prize1995??ìWeneedconstructivejobs–nurses,doctors,computerspecialists,skilledworkers…Thestatewantstoplaceallofsocietyísproblemsinourcommunity–aprison,a pipeline andanincinerator.Theywillhavetosolvethoseproblems, notjustdumpthemfromoneplacetoanother.î(AuroraCastilloinDevon Pena,TierraYVida:MexicanAmericansandtheEnvironment2005:xxiv)AuroraCastillo,residentofEastLos AngelesandfoundingMemberofMELAS(MotherísofEastLosAngeles)receivedtheGoldmanEnvironmentalPrizein1995.MELASìisrecognizedasapoliticalforceinthe regionthathashelpedtosetimportant legalprecedentsforothergrassroots environmentaljusticegroups.îhttp://www.goldmanprize.org/node/89GoldmanEnvironmental Prize2004 AncestralLands:WaterRights??LandandCulturevs.CommoditiesPetrochemicalsandhealthìGrowing UpinCancerAlleyMargie Richard grewup in the historicallyAfrican-American neighborhood ofOldDiamondinNorco, Louisiana,ina housejust 25feet awayfromShellChemicalsplant’sfenceline. Yearslater,she wouldleadthe front line of a long, hard-won battle to holdShellaccountableforthe devastatinghealth problems in hercommunity.Richard, 62,whosecampaignhasbeen hailedasalandmarkenvironmental justicevictory, holdsthe distinctionas thefirst African-American to winthe GoldmanEnvironmentalPrize.î2004http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/100??Acequias,centuriesoldwaterirrigationditches, usedin landgrantsinNewMexico&Colorado??GenerationsofacequiafarmersintheSouthwesthavecleanedupthisvitalresourcesincethe17thcentury??Communitiesareconcernedwithpollutionandthedeforesting/cuttingoftrees??HispanofarmershavenotonlybeenfightingfortheirlandbutalsowaterrightsFarmworkers,Agro-industriesandPesticides??Activistslinkedpesticideusetoenvironmentaldamageandunknowneffectstoconsumer.??Theyemphasizedworkplacesafety,qualityoflifeofentirecommunitiesandpesticiderelatedillnesses,birthdefectsanddeaths.??CesarChaveznotedthatchemicalcompaniesandgrowersconvincedpoliticianandgovernmentregulatorsthatpesticideusewasnecessaryfortheabundanceoffood.??Hequestionedthecost tofarmworkersandtotheenvironment.Ecology andKnowledge: LandandCulture??Asyoucanseetheactionsofdevelopersandenvironmentalpollutershavegeneratedresistance.??Land-basedandlaborstrugglesinruralareaslinktheissuestoecologicalimpactsandthelossofbiodiversity.??Inurbanareas,wewillexamineeffortstoestablishcommunitygardenstoaddressìfood securityîbutalsotheretentionandrestorationofecologicalknowledge.??Urbancommunity gardenshighlighttheimportanceoflandinthe foodchainandtheproductchain.??Fundamentally,thesearestrugglesfordefinitionofvalue;thepreservationofindigenous knowledgeandlivelihood;communityhealth.EnvironmentalRacism&Justice Struggles Power&DecisionMaking:EnvironmentalRacismPower&Decision Makin g: ìFromtheGroundUp î??Cole&Fosterprofileanimportantexampleofpoweranddecisionmaking??IntheKettlemancase,thecommunitywasshutoutfromvoicingtheiropinions,concernsandobjectionstoanincinerator proposal.??Economicbenefits fromrevenueproducedbythissite wenttocommunitiesnotdirectlyaffectedbytheeverydayoperationofthesite.??TheCountyBoardofSupervisors votedfortheincinerator3-1.DumpingToxicWaste:StateEnvironmentalLaws??Publicnoticerequirements under environmentallawsleftthecommunityofKettlemanCityintheSanJoaquinValleyatadisadvantage.??Therefore,residentsofthiscommunity didnotfindoutaboutatoxicwastefacility untilthe1980s.??ChemWaste,Incwasproposinganincineratorexpansionthatwouldburnupto108,000tonsof(216millionlbs)toxicwasteeachyear.Thisbasicallywouldbeinadditiontothehundredsofdailytruckloadsprocessedatthissite.??ChemWasteownsthelargestwastedumpinEmelle,AlabamaandtwootherlargefacilitiesinCalifornia.CerrellReportDangerous Patterns??Inlookingatthedistributionofthesefacilities,activistsfoundthatmostofthetoxicwastedumpswerelocatedinpoorminoritycommunities.??TheCerrellReportprovidedcluesaboutthesitingprocess.??CommissionedbytheCaliforniaWasteManagementBoardandpaidforbytaxpayerdollars:??TheCerrellreportsuggestedthatthecommunitiesthatwouldbeleastresistanttoincineratorswere:??ruralcommunities,poorcommunities,communitieswhoseresidents hadloweducationallevels,…highlycatholic,fewerthan25,000 residents…employedinresourceextractivejobssuchasmining, timberandagriculture.(Cole&Fosterp3)??ChemWastewasfinednumeroustimes forunsafehandlingofwaste??Eventhoughfineswereprettyhigh,theirbehaviorcontinued??Superfundcleanupviolations?ìsamplepackingîjustcheckingthefirst10trucksinsteadofensuringthatincompatiblewasteswerenotthrowntogether?ìResidentísfiguredthatifthecompanycanítrunaholeintheground correctly,itshouldnít begiventheabilitytodosomethingworse.î??TheincineratorinKettlemanCitywouldbedangerousaccordingtoresidents!(Cole&Fosterp5)ApprovalProcess:KettlemanIncinerator??KettlemanCityresidentswereexcludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationîinvariousways.??LackoftranslationofEnvironmentalImpactreport??Only5 ofthe1000pagesofthedocumenttranslatedintoSpanish.??Community dissentwasnottakenintoaccount intheplanningcommissionísdecisiontoapprovetheincinerator.??TheCerrellreportwas accurateinthatinstitutionalbarrierspreventedtheKettlemanCitycommunityfrom beingheard,recording theiroppositionandparticipatinginthedecision-making.Racism:EffectonCitizenParticipation,DemocraticvsTechnocraticKnowledge??Citizeninputlimitedbyclass,languageandtechnicaldifferences??Raceasignificantfactor??Communitieshavetodocumenttheeffectsofexposureandconfrontnotonly pollutersbutalsovariousinstitutionsthatblocktheiraccess??WhereelseinChapters1&2doyousee evidenceofbarrierstocitizenparticipation?GrassrootsOrganizingandCitizenLawsuits??ResidentsofKettlemanCitysuedandthecourtruledthatlackof participationinthereview processmandatedbytheCalifornia EnvironmentalQualityAct(CEQA)wasaviolation.??TheresidentshaddemandedreviewoftheEnvironmentalImpactReport (EIR).??GreenpeaceandElPuebloorganizedtosend5,000postcardstothe BoardandtheFarmBureau.??Theyalsocollected17,000signaturesinoppositiontotheincinerator.??ChemWasteappealedthejudgment.??Thiscasereflectedthe successofgrassrootsresistance.??ChemWastewithdrewitsapplicationin1993citingdeclineinuseof incineratortechnology.Terminology??Environmentalracismandenvironmentalinjustice willbeusedinterchangeablyinallthreetextsandinthecourse.??Theterminjusticebestcapturesthattoxicassaults moreseverely/directly affectthoselowerwithina hierarchyofclassandraciallocations.??Environmentalinjusticeacknowledgesinequityasa problemforeveryone.(Cole&Fosterp15)WhereShouldWasteFacilitiesbeSited???WastefacilitiesareLULUS(locallyundesirablelanduses)??Shouldwejust stopcreatingwaste?Howdowe dothat???Whatarethegoalsoftheenvironmentalmovement?Thedistributionofcommercial,hazardousorpotentiallyhazardousfacilitiesaswellasthecleanupof ìsuperfund sitesî concernsoccupationalenvironmental health.Whatyou shouldlearn fromthispresentation??Thisconcludestheintroductiontothecourseandthedifferent sourcesofinformationIwillbeusing.??Youshouldreadpage1-53ofCole&FosterFromtheGroundUp: EnvironmentalRacismandtheRiseof theEnvironmentalJusticeMovementthisweek.??Pleaseposttothediscussionboard,introduceyourselfwithname, majorandabriefbiography.??Haveyoutakenanonlinecoursebefore?Haveyoutakenotherdistancelearningcoursesbefore???Iwillpostquestionsfordiscussionfocusedontheoverviewand pp1-53onFriday8a.m.andyouwillhaveuntil8p.m.Mondayto postaresponse.??MakesurethatyoulogintoWebCtthisweekagainforadditional postingsandannouncements!Prerequisite:CompletionofGEbasicsubjects(BlockA)andOneG.E.BlockB1course.Useofepidemiologyinenvironmentalhealth.Morbidityandmortalityincommunitiesofcolorandlower economicstatusduetodisproportionatedistributionofenvironmentalcontaminants.CHS370/HS 370EnvironmentalRacism? Spring2013? Roberto Flores Ph.D? AdjunctAssistantProfessor? Dept.ofChicanoStudies? Robertof2@socal.rr.comRemember:Thissectionofthecourseistaughtfullyonline.!Environmental Racism?Definition:Epidemiology Examinationofthelinkbetweenhuman exposure and health outcomesHumanExposureInformationRiskassessmentEstimation ofthelikelihood, magnitude anduncertainty ofhealth risksassociatedwith environmentalexposures?Theintentionalsitingofhazardouswastesites,landfills,incineratorsandpollutingindustriesincommunities inhabitedmainlybyAfricanAmericans,Hispanics,NativeAmericans,Asians,migrantworkers andtheworkingpoor.StatusandtrendsEvaluation of historicalpatterns Current statusand possibleFuturechangeinhumanexposuresand/orhealth outcomes??Route??Magnitude??Duration??Frequency??distribution??Mostexposed??Temporalaspects??Geographic aspects??Demographic aspectsRiskmanagement Determinationofwhich,healthrisksareunacceptableand whattodoaboutthem?Thesefacilitiesmaybetiedtoacommunityíseconomicsurvivaltherebycompromisingresidentsíabilitytoopposeìlocallyundesirablelanduses.îImportantusesof humanexposureinformation intheassessment andmanagement ofenvironmentalhealth risks (Sextonetal.)http://www.ehponline.org/members/1995/Suppl-3/sex ton-full.htmlMeasuringEnvironmentalRacism EnvironmentalRacism:Whydoesit occur?How doesonegoabout determiningenvironmentalracismexists?I. Whatvariablesmatter?Independent??Relationshipbetweensocialmovements,industry,laborandtechnologyvariablesDependent variablesEpidemiologyONLINERaceand class(income,education, occupation) arecriticalvariables toexamine.II. ObserveEffectsA. Wherearepolluting facilitieslocated?Wherearepesticides ortoxinsdisposed of? Inotherwords,whatpatternscanbeobservedintermsofìsitingîoffacilities, dumping oftoxins,clustering, etc.(riskfactors,exposure)B. Whateffectsdoesìsitingîoftoxicwastehaveoncommunities ofcolorintermsofqualityoflifeandoccurrenceofadversehealtheffects:morbidityrate&mortalityrate=epidemiological profile ofcommunitiesexposedtowaste,toxins etc.III. Epidemiology examinesrisk,morbidity,mortalityIntheLosAngelesbasin,exposuretopollution fromcaremissionsiscorrelatedwithmorecasesofasthmain children.IV. Assessments/ActivitiesClickto seeCancerinLABasinHowdoesenvironmentalpollution affectthecancerratesthroughout theLABasin???TheEnvironmentalMovementandEnvironmentalJusticeMovementsprovidedifferent assessmentsandsolutionsforcommunities toaddressEnvironmentalRacism??Science,research&technologycentraltodebatesandsolutions?Health&theenvironment??epidemiologyEnvironmentalismandPolicyPreservation??Environmentalpolicyisrootedintwocompetingperspectivesabouttheenvironment:preservationandconservation??TwoleadingfiguresinfluencingearlyU.S.governmentenvironmentalpolicyinclude?Sierra Clubfounder JohnMuir(1838-1914).Activist.proposedwildlifepreservationandadvocatedfornationalparks?GiffordPinchot(1865-1946.Policy.HeadofU.S.ForestryService(1905-1910);hebelievedinJohnMuir,totherightofpresidentTheodoreRoosevelt,convincedhimtoprotect wildernessland.“Ifyouthinkaboutallthegainsoursocietyhasmade,fromindependencetonow,itwasn’tgovernment.Itwas activism.Peoplethink,’Oh,TeddyRooseveltestablishedYosemiteNationalPark,whatagreatpresident.’BS.ItwasJohnMuirwhoinvitedRooseveltoutandthenconvincedhimtoditchhissecurity andgocamping.ItwasMuir,anactivist,asingleperson.”–PatagoniafounderandoutdoorenthusiastYvonChouinardinarecentSierraMagazineinterviewhttp://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/Quarter coin2005conservationandscientificmanagementofresourcesforhumanuseorprofithttp://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/graphics/roosvelt_muir_front.jpgGovernmentAgencies&ScientificManagement?U.S.ForestryService?GiffordPinchotbelievedthatscientificknowledgeneededtobeappliedtomanagementofnaturalresources.Efficiencywasthe goal.?Inhisview,sciencecouldprovideanindependentvoicecapableofmoderatingbetweenprofitmotivesofindustryandtoomuchgovernmentcontrol.ControlofNature: Science &Progress?Trustintechnologytoadvanceeconomicgrowth?Burgeoningindustriesrequirelotsofnaturalresources?Growingpopulationandurbanizationrequirehighervolumeoffoodproduction?Pesticideskeytoìcontrolofnatureîandnationalprogress?DDTchemicalwidely usedtocontrolinsects;higheragriculturaloutputSilentSpring:PesticidesandHealth??PublicationofRachelCarsonísbookìSilentSpringîin1962brings ecologicalawarenesstonationalpublic attention.??CarsoncritiquesuseofDDTandenumeratesvariousharmfuleffectson floraandfauna andthelastingimpactonsoil, waterandairquality–morecritically ontheviability andvitality ofourfoodchain.??Sheconnectsdiseaseinthenaturalenvironmenttotheprevalenceofillnessesin humans??Callsforlessaggressivepestcontrolmethodstopreventthedegradationoftheenvironment??DDTwasbannedintheU.S.in1972GovernmentGovernment Oversight??EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyestablishedin1970??Citizen inputwasveryimportanttothisnewregulatoryagency??Stillmuchoftheregulationsfavorbureaucraticexpertknowledgesystemswhichdonítalwaysprotectresidents affectedbyharmfulfacilitiesortoxicsubstances??Poorerandlesseducatedgroupsaremostlyexcludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationî??SeeWhyEPAwas established?Environmental Justice Movements??ConsolidationofanetworkofAfricanAmericanenvironmentalactivistsandorganizationssince1982thrutheUnitedChurchofChrist.??MinorityEnvironmentalstruggleshavealonghistory.??NativeAmericancommunitiespointoutthattheyhavebeenengagedinenvironmentalstruggles sincetheirlandswereinvadedbyEuropeans.??MajorenvironmentalprotectionorganizationshavebeenestablishedliketheSierraClub(1898);buttheyhavebeentypicallyfocusedonconservation/preservationissuesandhaveoftenstayedawayfromthestrugglesofpoor communities.http://www.macalester.edu/americanstudies/afamconf7.html RicardoLevinsMorales,NorthlandPosterCollectiveNativeAmericansandEnvironmentalRacism??WinonaLaDuke,anativeAmericanscholar,describes thesituationinthesecommunitiesintermsofresourceextraction,dumpingofnuclearwasteandothersubstances,clearcutting(deforesting).??Industrialdevelopmentinitiativeshaveìdevouredîlands, rivers,speciesand entireculturesintheirpath.??Theseìinvasiveindustrialinterventionsî(Laduke1999)threaten notonlythosecommunitiesbutalsobiodiversity.Native AmericansandEnvironmentalRacism??ThelossofbiodiversitythreatenstheexistenceofNativeAmericans.??Attentionto thelossofbiodiversityinthiscommunityraisesissues ofpreservationofculturaldiversityandfuturegenerationsofnativesandnon-natives??ClickNavajohttp://www.latimes.com/extras/navajo/Day1/UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping??MotherísofEastLosAngeles,Santa Isabel?MELASiorìLasMELASî??Opposedincinerators, pipelineandprisonproposals forEastLosAngeles??AuroraCastillo,a MELASactivistputitsuccintly:UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumpingGoldmanEnvironmental Prize1995??ìWeneedconstructivejobs–nurses,doctors,computerspecialists,skilledworkers…Thestatewantstoplaceallofsocietyísproblemsinourcommunity–aprison,a pipeline andanincinerator.Theywillhavetosolvethoseproblems, notjustdumpthemfromoneplacetoanother.î(AuroraCastilloinDevon Pena,TierraYVida:MexicanAmericansandtheEnvironment2005:xxiv)AuroraCastillo,residentofEastLos AngelesandfoundingMemberofMELAS(MotherísofEastLosAngeles)receivedtheGoldmanEnvironmentalPrizein1995.MELASìisrecognizedasapoliticalforceinthe regionthathashelpedtosetimportant legalprecedentsforothergrassroots environmentaljusticegroups.îhttp://www.goldmanprize.org/node/89GoldmanEnvironmental Prize2004 AncestralLands:WaterRights??LandandCulturevs.CommoditiesPetrochemicalsandhealthìGrowing UpinCancerAlleyMargie Richard grewup in the historicallyAfrican-American neighborhood ofOldDiamondinNorco, Louisiana,ina housejust 25feet awayfromShellChemicalsplant’sfenceline. Yearslater,she wouldleadthe front line of a long, hard-won battle to holdShellaccountableforthe devastatinghealth problems in hercommunity.Richard, 62,whosecampaignhasbeen hailedasalandmarkenvironmental justicevictory, holdsthe distinctionas thefirst African-American to winthe GoldmanEnvironmentalPrize.î2004http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/100??Acequias,centuriesoldwaterirrigationditches, usedin landgrantsinNewMexico&Colorado??GenerationsofacequiafarmersintheSouthwesthavecleanedupthisvitalresourcesincethe17thcentury??Communitiesareconcernedwithpollutionandthedeforesting/cuttingoftrees??HispanofarmershavenotonlybeenfightingfortheirlandbutalsowaterrightsFarmworkers,Agro-industriesandPesticides??Activistslinkedpesticideusetoenvironmentaldamageandunknowneffectstoconsumer.??Theyemphasizedworkplacesafety,qualityoflifeofentirecommunitiesandpesticiderelatedillnesses,birthdefectsanddeaths.??CesarChaveznotedthatchemicalcompaniesandgrowersconvincedpoliticianandgovernmentregulatorsthatpesticideusewasnecessaryfortheabundanceoffood.??Hequestionedthecost tofarmworkersandtotheenvironment.Ecology andKnowledge: LandandCulture??Asyoucanseetheactionsofdevelopersandenvironmentalpollutershavegeneratedresistance.??Land-basedandlaborstrugglesinruralareaslinktheissuestoecologicalimpactsandthelossofbiodiversity.??Inurbanareas,wewillexamineeffortstoestablishcommunitygardenstoaddressìfood securityîbutalsotheretentionandrestorationofecologicalknowledge.??Urbancommunity gardenshighlighttheimportanceoflandinthe foodchainandtheproductchain.??Fundamentally,thesearestrugglesfordefinitionofvalue;thepreservationofindigenous knowledgeandlivelihood;communityhealth.EnvironmentalRacism&Justice Struggles Power&DecisionMaking:EnvironmentalRacismPower&Decision Makin g: ìFromtheGroundUp î??Cole&Fosterprofileanimportantexampleofpoweranddecisionmaking??IntheKettlemancase,thecommunitywasshutoutfromvoicingtheiropinions,concernsandobjectionstoanincinerator proposal.??Economicbenefits fromrevenueproducedbythissite wenttocommunitiesnotdirectlyaffectedbytheeverydayoperationofthesite.??TheCountyBoardofSupervisors votedfortheincinerator3-1.DumpingToxicWaste:StateEnvironmentalLaws??Publicnoticerequirements under environmentallawsleftthecommunityofKettlemanCityintheSanJoaquinValleyatadisadvantage.??Therefore,residentsofthiscommunity didnotfindoutaboutatoxicwastefacility untilthe1980s.??ChemWaste,Incwasproposinganincineratorexpansionthatwouldburnupto108,000tonsof(216millionlbs)toxicwasteeachyear.Thisbasicallywouldbeinadditiontothehundredsofdailytruckloadsprocessedatthissite.??ChemWasteownsthelargestwastedumpinEmelle,AlabamaandtwootherlargefacilitiesinCalifornia.CerrellReportDangerous Patterns??Inlookingatthedistributionofthesefacilities,activistsfoundthatmostofthetoxicwastedumpswerelocatedinpoorminoritycommunities.??TheCerrellReportprovidedcluesaboutthesitingprocess.??CommissionedbytheCaliforniaWasteManagementBoardandpaidforbytaxpayerdollars:??TheCerrellreportsuggestedthatthecommunitiesthatwouldbeleastresistanttoincineratorswere:??ruralcommunities,poorcommunities,communitieswhoseresidents hadloweducationallevels,…highlycatholic,fewerthan25,000 residents…employedinresourceextractivejobssuchasmining, timberandagriculture.(Cole&Fosterp3)??ChemWastewasfinednumeroustimes forunsafehandlingofwaste??Eventhoughfineswereprettyhigh,theirbehaviorcontinued??Superfundcleanupviolations?ìsamplepackingîjustcheckingthefirst10trucksinsteadofensuringthatincompatiblewasteswerenotthrowntogether?ìResidentísfiguredthatifthecompanycanítrunaholeintheground correctly,itshouldnít begiventheabilitytodosomethingworse.î??TheincineratorinKettlemanCitywouldbedangerousaccordingtoresidents!(Cole&Fosterp5)ApprovalProcess:KettlemanIncinerator??KettlemanCityresidentswereexcludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationîinvariousways.??LackoftranslationofEnvironmentalImpactreport??Only5 ofthe1000pagesofthedocumenttranslatedintoSpanish.??Community dissentwasnottakenintoaccount intheplanningcommissionísdecisiontoapprovetheincinerator.??TheCerrellreportwas accurateinthatinstitutionalbarrierspreventedtheKettlemanCitycommunityfrom beingheard,recording theiroppositionandparticipatinginthedecision-making.Racism:EffectonCitizenParticipation,DemocraticvsTechnocraticKnowledge??Citizeninputlimitedbyclass,languageandtechnicaldifferences??Raceasignificantfactor??Communitieshavetodocumenttheeffectsofexposureandconfrontnotonly pollutersbutalsovariousinstitutionsthatblocktheiraccess??WhereelseinChapters1&2doyousee evidenceofbarrierstocitizenparticipation?GrassrootsOrganizingandCitizenLawsuits??ResidentsofKettlemanCitysuedandthecourtruledthatlackof participationinthereview processmandatedbytheCalifornia EnvironmentalQualityAct(CEQA)wasaviolation.??TheresidentshaddemandedreviewoftheEnvironmentalImpactReport (EIR).??GreenpeaceandElPuebloorganizedtosend5,000postcardstothe BoardandtheFarmBureau.??Theyalsocollected17,000signaturesinoppositiontotheincinerator.??ChemWasteappealedthejudgment.??Thiscasereflectedthe successofgrassrootsresistance.??ChemWastewithdrewitsapplicationin1993citingdeclineinuseof incineratortechnology.Terminology??Environmentalracismandenvironmentalinjustice willbeusedinterchangeablyinallthreetextsandinthecourse.??Theterminjusticebestcapturesthattoxicassaults moreseverely/directly affectthoselowerwithina hierarchyofclassandraciallocations.??Environmentalinjusticeacknowledgesinequityasa problemforeveryone.(Cole&Fosterp15)WhereShouldWasteFacilitiesbeSited???WastefacilitiesareLULUS(locallyundesirablelanduses)??Shouldwejust stopcreatingwaste?Howdowe dothat???Whatarethegoalsoftheenvironmentalmovement?Thedistributionofcommercial,hazardousorpotentiallyhazardousfacilitiesaswellasthecleanupof ìsuperfund sitesî concernsoccupationalenvironmental health.Whatyou shouldlearn fromthispresentation??Thisconcludestheintroductiontothecourseandthedifferent sourcesofinformationIwillbeusing.??Youshouldreadpage1-53ofCole&FosterFromtheGroundUp: EnvironmentalRacismandtheRiseof theEnvironmentalJusticeMovementthisweek.??Pleaseposttothediscussionboard,introduceyourselfwithname, majorandabriefbiography.??Haveyoutakenanonlinecoursebefore?Haveyoutakenotherdistancelearningcoursesbefore???Iwillpostquestionsfordiscussionfocusedontheoverviewand pp1-53onFriday8a.m.andyouwillhaveuntil8p.m.Mondayto postaresponse.??MakesurethatyoulogintoWebCtthisweekagainforadditional postingsandannouncements!


Last Completed Projects

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6
Writer's choice
Business
University
2
1 hour 32 min
7
Wise Approach to
Philosophy
College
2
2 hours 19 min
8
1980's and 1990
History
College
3
2 hours 20 min
9
pick the best topic
Finance
School
2
2 hours 27 min
10
finance for leisure
Finance
University
12
2 hours 36 min