efficient and effective patient appointment management system

They has been a growing need for an efficient and effective patient appointment management system that would assist patients to book an appointment with a doctor (Chen and Robinson 2003, pp. 136-306). An online appointment system offers a way for better management and reduces the waiting for patients. In addition, patient suffering from psychological challenges fear close interactions with other people since such they require privacy, convenience and some degree of flexibility to meet the doctor (Chen and Robinson 2003, pp. 136-306).
The report is on the implementation of an online application that will help patients in the process of reservation of appointments for patients in a psychiatric clinic. The online application is developed in manner that provides many characteristics that will enhance patient and doctor interaction with some degree of flexibility and convenience.
The goals and objectives of the system were to create a system that is flexible, robust and reliable that will achieve all operations required.
The core project objective were as follows
1. Develop a new system for the psychiatric clinic
2. Provide a robust, reliable and flexible online reservation system for users of the system
3. Enhance doctor and patient communication
4. Can be easily accessed by users through various communication devices such mobile phones, tabs and others
5. Offer an Geo-location features that provides a map and direction from the house of the patient to the clinic
The report gives the project implementation phases of the project. It began by developing the methodology and project plan that were used to manage the entire process of the project. Second, develop the requirement and specifications analysis of the system being developed. Third, design the project model. Fourth, implement of the systems. Lastly, test and compare results of the systems. On completion of the project it important for one review the system in order to determine the overall impact the project had on it users and also understand the best approach for future projects.
Methodology and Project Plan
In this phases will examine and describe the methodology that was used to manage the project in order to ensure the goals and objectives were met. Moreover, it illustrated that project planning is a critical component to ensure a projects success. In this section I will list project tools that were used throughout the project.
Project Methodology
After a close review of all existing methodologies, the waterfall software development methodology was chosen due to the following reason:
1. All requirements of the system are known early and are well understood. Thus, are unlike to be changed over time
2. Simple and easy way over developing systems
3. Ensure proper documentation
4. Easy to determine the overall cost of the system and time of delivery
The following diagram shows the waterfall software development methodology processes:

Figure 1.1 waterfall methodology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model
The waterfall software methodology contains five stages namely Requirements analysis, design phase, implementation, verification, and testing and maintenance.
Requirements Analysis
This is the first phase which entails collection and analysing the project requirement and specifications. Afterwards the use UML language is used to make use case and actvity diagrams. The main reason for the procedure is to map and clarify the functionalties of the system.
The design phases UML program is used to create a model for the system. In addition, other supporting tools are used to design the database and interface design.
The implementation phase contains writing code and system implementation using PHP programming language, HTML and associated java scripts that support and ensure the objectives and requirements set are met by the system.
Testing and Maintenance
After the implementation, testing is essential to ensure that the system performs to the required specification and processes all operations correctly even under high pressure or unexpected outcomes occur.
This phase is necessary to ensure that all objective have been met, determine the consequences and determine the best possible approach to be taken.
Project Planning
Project planning takes places to ensure that all processes and activities that are to be carried out are identified, scheduled and appropriate resource allocate to ensure timely delivery of the project. The tools used are: Microsoft project and word.
Project Scope and Limitation
1. The online appointment system is developed to support activities of psychiatric patients offering simple steps for booking appointments.
2. The system meets the needs for both the patients and the doctors in any psychiatric clinic
3. The system is robust and scalable therefore can be integrated with other appointment management system such as University appointment system for booking appoints between supervisors and students.
Project Scheduling
Project scheduling refers to the total work in the project that are divided into tasks and judged by the time required to complete these tasks. Time management is a critical component in the project planning. In order to determine the time requirement and effort needed to finish each phase the project plan is shown in the table below
Project Developmental Tools
The following tools technologies and software tools were chosen to assist in the project development
Tool Description Phase
Microsoft Office 2007
Document writing process All
Microsoft project: Used for Project scheduling and time planning. Planning
UML Used to make object-oriented models and diagrams
Create use-case diagrams, activity diagrams. Analysis
Dreamweaver Develop and designing the web forms and interfaces. Building the website. Design & Implementation
Database MS Access Create the site database schema, and tables, attributes and relationship between tables. Design & Implementation
Adobe Acrobat Reader Used for reading PDF documents. Planning
Microsoft.NET Framework. IDE between PHP and MS Access Implementation
Adobe Photoshop CS3 Designing the website template Design & implementation
IIS Testing the system. Implementation & Testing
Internet-Explorer, Firefox-
and Google chrome Testing the system. Implementation & Testing
Clickatell-SMS (API)Gateway SMS Gateway Implementation

Requirements Analysis
System Requirement
• Offer a reliable and flexible online booking reservation system
• Simple and effective communication between doctors and patients
• Reminders for both doctors and patients about their appointments periods
• Carry out follow-up about their appointment through various communication devices
• Compatibility with various browsers (e.g. Google Chrome, Opera, Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as smart phones).
• Offer an Geo-location features that provides a map and direction from the house of the patient to the clinic
System Features
The system by and large offers a number of features to all it users. A doctor has his own web page where he can easily login into the system; choose the best time to accept reservation from patients. Moreover, he has the ability to change the appointment and the system will quickly notify the patient of the changes made. The doctor is allowed to send and receive messages to any of his registered patients as well as delete, edit, post and delete notices on the main page. Each of the features ensures convenience, faster and an efficient means of communicating with patients.
Whereas patients benefit from several features of the system the patient is given full access to the system provided he/she is registered. After registration a patient is given associated username and password of his or her choosing. A patient can write a profile on his or her page. Have access to the reservation page where one can book suitable time for treatments and the doctor that he prefers. Likewise, patients are also given privileges to amend or delete appointments and edit their profiles.
It is important mentioned any amendments that occurs on any appointment by either the doctor or the patient, an automatic alert SMS message and email is sent to both users informing them of the changes that have occurred. Moreover, users will be able to see those changes on the own appoints on the Google calendar. This ensures that the system is robust and reliable through SMS text messaging alerts.
To ensure that the system meets all security requirements, the system has only one administrator given all privileges and full control of the website acting as its custodian. He is responsible for adding and removing doctors and clinic departments. The administrator can view all the doctors’ reservations and modify them according likewise, the profiles.
Requirement Analysis
The use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) modeling tools is used to describe various functionality and applications of the system.
The use UML is used describe the modeling of an event. It uses a number of graphical notations technics in order to create abstract models that are used to describe the systems activities and flow of events.
Events and activities are divided into the system actors and in the system were illustrated as follows:
1. Login activity diagram and flow of event.
2. Administrator use case, activity diagram and flow of events.
3. Doctors use case, activity diagrams and flow of events.
4. Patients use case, activity diagrams and flow of events.
A table showing the key of events priority
Priority Description
1 Mandatory
2 required
3 Preferably
Table 2.A Priority table
Login Activity diagram and Flow of Events
This begins when a valid user enters the users his username and password. Then the system authenticates

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