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Discuss what is meant by the term strategic counterintelligence and why a counterintelligence strategy is important for national security.

Briefly answer the following questions, separating by paragraph headers:

a. From your knowledge of U.S. Counterintelligence history select one success and one failure. Discuss how each affected U.S. National Security.
b. Explain how, according to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and Patriot Act, foreign intelligence surveillance is conducted within the United States. Discuss whether the recently revealed activities of the National Security Agency (NSA) are consistent with these laws. Can we draw any lessons today from the events of the 1960’s and 70’s
c. Assess whether the structure and approach of U.S. Counterintelligence is capable of meeting the challenges of the 21st century. What recommendations, if any, would you make?

1. Discuss the changes to the structure of the Counterintelligence Community as directed by Presidential Decision Directive-75 and the Counterintelligence Reform Act of 2004. What was the purpose of these changes?
2. Discuss what is meant by the term strategic counterintelligence and why a counterintelligence strategy is important for national security.
3. Ms. Van Cleave in her article Counterintelligence and National Strategy provides an overview of the U.S. Counterintelligence Strategy during the Bush Administration (2005). What similarities and differences exist between the current strategy and the 2005 strategy?

1. Of all the different intelligence disciplines used by foreign intelligence services to target U.S. interests, which is the primary focus of U.S. Counterintelligence efforts? Why?
2. Arguably, Cuba, of all the adversary nations discussed, is the least threatening to the overall security of the U.S., yet it maintains a formidable intelligence capability directed against the U.S. Discuss Cuban intelligence capabilities and the reasons for maintaining such capabilities.
3. The readings highlight several well-known foreign intelligence threats to the U.S. to include: Russia, China, North Korea and Cuba. What other countries pose a foreign intelligence threat to the U.S? Why? Do you believe that friendly nations pose a threat? Why?

a. Based upon the articles by Dr. Gelles, Katherine Herbig and the FBI “Insider Threat” pamphlet, discuss the psychological and behavioral traits of Robert Hanssen that are consistent with those documented as being “indicators” or motivation for espionage.
b. Discuss how internal security (defensive) procedures can help counterintelligence agencies detect and deter espionage and thereby achieve success in the “Protect” mission of counterintelligence. Identify specific procedures that should be employed and provide an example of how weak internal security has contributed to counterintelligence failures.
c. Discuss the factors in the Hanssen case that impeded FBI investigative progress and ultimately delayed the identification of Robert Hanssen as a spy?

a. Using the steps of the recruitment cycle as a framework, discuss the case of Adolf Tolkachev.
b. In the article by Ivan A. Serov, he discusses examples of how walk-ins were handled by Soviet Intelligence. Select three examples and using Begoum’s “Observations on the Double Agent” discuss how, a case officer, could ensure a greater likelihood of success for a double agent operation.
c. What is deception? Discuss how counterintelligence operations can be used to support these activities? Explain the differences between strategic and tactical level deception. Give historical examples.

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