- Describe three factors that might contribute to disproportionate minority contact or confinement (DMC) and explain how.
- Describe at least two approaches that might decrease DMC in the criminal justice system and explain how.
- As a current or future criminal justice professional, describe two strategies you might employ to prevent DMC in the future, and explain why you selected these strategies.
Support your Application Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.
- Article: Kakar, S. (2006). Understanding the causes of disproportionate minority contact: Results of focus group discussions. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(4), 369–381.Copyright 2006 by ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS. Reprinted by permission of ELSEVIER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY JOURNALS via the Copyright Clearance Center.
- Article: Morash, M. Bynum, T. S., & Koons, B. A. Women offenders: Programming needs and promising approaches. National Institute of Justice Research in Brief. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/171668.pdf
- Report: Richie, B. E., Tsenin, K., & Widom, C., (2000). Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System: Plenary Papers of the Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation–Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 3 (1999). Research Forum (DOJ Report No.NCJ-180973). Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED450185.pdf
- “Exploring the Link Between Violence Against Women and Women’s Involvement in Illegal activity”
- “Childhood Victimization and the Derailment of Girls and Women to the Criminal Justice System”
- Article: Snyder, H. N., Sickmund, M., Poe-Yamagata, E., & National Center for Juvenile Justice. (2000). Executive summary. In Juvenile transfers to criminal court in the 1990’s: Lessons learned from four studies. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/summary/08_2000/contents.html
- Report: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (October 2009). OJJDP in focus: Disproportionate minority contact. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/228306.pdf
- Report: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1997). Special report: Sex differences in violent victimization in 1994 (DOJ Report No. NCJ-164508). Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/SDVV.PDF
- Web Resource: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.) Hate crime statistics. Retrieved from http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/hc2009/index.html
- Article: Cabaniss, E. R., Frabutt, J. M., Kendrick, M. H., & Arbuckle, M. B. (2007). Reducing disproportionate minority contact in the juvenile justice system: Promising practices. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 12(4), 393–401. Retrieved from Walden library using the Science Direct Psychology database doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.09.004.
- Article: Chesney-Lind, M., Morash, M., & Stevens, T. (2008). Girls’ troubles, girls’ delinquency, and gender responsive programming: a review. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 41(1), 162–189. Retrieved from Walden library using the Academic Search Complete database.
- Report: Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d). Uniform crime reports. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/ucr
- Report: Hsia, H. M., Bridges, G.S., & McHale, R. (September 2004). Disproportionate minority confinement 2002 update. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/201240.pdf
- Article: National Center for Juvenile Justice. (2000). Juvenile transfers to criminal court in the 1990s: Lessons learned from four stories. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/summary/08_2000/contents.html
- Article: Piquero, A. R. (2008). Disproportionate minority contact. Future of Children, 18(2), 59–79. Retrieved from Walden library using the Education Research Complete database.
- Article: Popkin, S. J., Leventhal, T., & Weismann, G. (2010). Girls in the ‘hood: How safety affects the life chances of low-income girls. Urban Affairs Review, 45(6), 715–7 44. Retrieved from Walden library using the Sage Premier database.