Aside from silent mutations which have no effect on amino acid sequence, are all mutations bad? Explain

DNA and Genes Lab Activity

Complete your answers in the spaces provided. USE YOUR OWN WORDS – Yes even for definitions! Remember to add your last name and first initial to the file name prior to saving and submitting your completed assignment through Canvas.

Use your textbook, notes and these websites to answer the pre lab questions. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/transcribe/ http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl/en/virtuallessons/cellcycle/trans/

Pre Lab Questions:

1. What is the product of transcription?

2. What is the region of DNA called where transcription begins?
3. What is the product of translation?
4. In your own words define each of the following: Silent mutation

Missense mutation Nonsense mutation Frame shift mutation

5. Where in the cell does translation take place?
Click on the link below to access the online lab.

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs_2K8/pages/DNA_And_Genes.html

Download and print the instructions for reference as you work through the lab. As you work through the lab fill in the table below. Use this information to answer the questions that follow contained in this document.

First read through the mutation guide. Once you close the guide you will see the buttons to begin the simulation. Note, you will be translating the mRNA strand into a protein.
As you work through each of the mutations fill in the charts below. You must complete 4 mutations for this lab activity. It’s good practice working with the codon table .

– Aris labs calls the codon table the ‘Genetic Code Chart’. Use the amino acid abbreviation for the protein sequence. For example the amino acid proline is abbreviated as pro.

You have to fill in all the letters AND the resulting amino acid sequence by dragging and dropping before you click the [check] button. Abrieviate STOP as either STP or END.

For each of the three mutations you will complete, fill in the table in this lab document with the original mRNA and amino acid sequence and the mRNA sequence and the resulting amino acid sequence RESULTING FROM the mutation as outlined in the mutation rule.

The various mutations represent missense, nonsense, silent and frame shift mutations. You must complete one of each. The lab will not necessarily present the mutations in this order. You must do the mutation and identify which type it is and make sure you do one of each.

6. Frame Shift Mutation example:
Provide the mutation rule you are following.
Original
A. Acids
Original
mRNA
Mutated
mRNA
Mutated
A. Acids

7. Missense Mutation example:
Provide the mutation rule you are following.

Original
A. Acids
Original
mRNA
Mutated
mRNA
Mutated
A. Acids

8. Nonsense Mutation example:
Provide the mutation rule you are following.
Original
A. Acids
Original
mRNA
Mutated
mRNA
Mutated
A. Acids

9. Silent Mutation example:
Provide the mutation rule you are following.
Original
A. Acids
Original
mRNA
Mutated
mRNA
Mutated
A. Acids

Post Lab Questions

10. From the mutations you have explored, which one is the least severe. Explain your answer.

11. From the mutations you have explored, which one is the most severe. Why?
12. Aside from silent mutations which have no effect on amino acid sequence, are all mutations bad? Explain your answer.
Lab 10 Classification of Organisms

Complete your answers in the spaces provided. USE YOUR OWN WORDS – Yes even for definitions! Remember to add your last name and first initial to the file name prior to saving and submitting your completed assignment through Canvas.

The lab website has post lab questions – these are not necessary – you only have to complete the questions in this lab assignment document.

http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Life/classification_intro.html http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/six_kingdoms/index.htm http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/default.htm

Pre Lab Questions

1. What are the three domains of life? Provide the domain name and basic characteristics for each.

2. List the 4 Kingdoms of the Eukaryotic Domain and their basic characteristics.

3. What is the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph?

Use the link below to go to the lab site:
http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/E07/E07.html

In the upper right there is a box with five organisms. Drag each one individually to the magnifying glass to learn more about it. After reading about its characteristics drag it to the appropriate kingdom box in the middle of the screen. Do this for all the organisms in the box and click the check button. Click reset to work your way through the ten organisms in the table below.

4. Table 1
Organism Name Kingdom Key Feature(s) for Classification

Tapeworm
Plumose Anemone
Euglena gracilis
Wisk fern
Archaeoglobus
Sargosso weed
Paramecium
Methanosarcina
barkeri
Living stone
Methanopyrus

Kingdoms are further divided into phyla. Table 2 below lists parameters for 8 of the Animal Kingdom Phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminths (flatworms), Nematodes (roundworms), Molusks, Annelids, Arthropods, and Chordates. Here’s some websites to visit for additional information:

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/trnov01.htm http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/labs/animaldiversity.htm
Animal Kingdom

Animalia Phylum Symmetry Other Characteristics Examples
Sea Life
Porifera
None – No nervous, digestive, or
circulatory systems
– Filter feeders Sponges
Cnidaria
Radial – True tissue differentiation
and nematocyts Jellyfish, Coral,
Hydra

Mollusca
Bilateral – True coelom
– Soft body; some secrete calcium based shell Squid,
Cuttlefish, Octopus, Snail
Worms
Platyhelmi nth
Bilateral – Unsegmented
– Nervous system and true organs
– Single opening to digestive tract Flatworm,
Tapeworm
Nematode
Bilateral – Unsegmented
– Nervous and digestive system Roundworm
Annelid
Bilateral – Segmentation
– Nervous, digestive, and circulatory systems Earthworm,
Leech

Invertebrates
Arthropod
Bilateral – Segmentation
– Exoskeleton
– Circulatory system Spider, crab,
scorpion,
lobster, crayfish, shrimp, insects

Vertebrates
Chordate
Bilateral – Endoskeleton
– Nervous, digestive, and circulatory systems Mammal, Bird,
Reptile, Amphibian, Fish

Fill in the Table 3. Provide the definition in your own words and an example organism and phyla. You can choose example organisms from the lab you’ve completed, the phyla characteristics table above, or one you come up with on your own.

Table 3

Characteristic Definition Example Organism Phyla of Example
Organism
Endoskeleton
Exoskeleton
Radial
symmetry
Bilateral
symmetry
True Coelom
Segmentation
(Body)
Hardy Weinberg Homework
The following websites have alternative ways of explaining the Hardy Weinberg Principles. http://nortonbooks.com/college/biology/animations/ch17p01.htm
http://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/biology198/hardwein.html
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPkOAnK20kw http://integrativebiology.okstate.edu/zoo_lrc/biol1114/tutorials/Flash/life4e_15-6-OSU.swf

The Hardy Weinberg Principle states that allele frequencies do not change over time if 5 parameters are met. There can be no natural selection, no migration into or out from the population, no mutation, all mating must be random, and the population must be very large. In this lab you are going to use a small population to simulate the effect these parameters can have on allele frequencies.

First you must remember that each individual possesses two alleles of each trait. So an individual who is homozygous for color (B = Black, b = brown) BB has two copies of the B allele. A heterozygous individual has one B allele and one b allele. Finally a homozygous recessive brown individual has two copies of the b allele.

For example in a population of 100 flies you gathered the following information: 20
Homozygous Black, 40 Heterozygous Black, 40 Homozygous Brown. The allele numbers for this population are shown in the table below.

Genotype Number in
Population Total # B
alleles Total # b
alleles
BB 20 40 0
Bb 40 40 40
bb 40 0 80
totals 100 80 120

There is a difference between the actual alleles and an estimate of the alleles for a population. If you know the genotypes of all the individuals you can calculate the actual allele frequencies by dividing the total number of one allele and dividing it by the total number of all alleles for that population. In our example above the actual frequency of the B allele is calculated by dividing
80 (the total number of B alleles for the population) by 200 (the total of all the alleles of the population. 80/200 = 0.4. Therefore P = 0.4 You can then use the formula P + q = 1 to determine the frequency of q. 0.4 + q = 1 so q = 0.6.
1. In a population of 100 flies you gathered the following information: 15 Homozygous Black, 30 Heterozygous Black, 55 Homozygous Brown. Using this information fill in the chart below and answer the questions

Genotype Number in
Population Total # B
alleles Total # b
alleles
BB
Bb
bb
totals

2. What percentage of the population is phenotypically Black? Explain your answer.

3. Calculate the actual allele frequency of B. Provide a full explanation of your work .
4. Explain the concept of non-random mating.
5. Does non random mating increase or decrease the genetic diversity of a population. Explain your answer.

6. List the Hardy Weinberg principles.

7. What happens to the allele frequencies of a population if all Hardy Weinberg principles are met?
8. Which genotype (homozygous dominant, heterozygous, homozygous recessive) is known just by their phenotype? Why?

Lab 11 Population Biology

Complete your answers in the spaces provided. USE YOUR OWN WORDS – Yes even for definitions! Remember to add your last name and first initial to the file name prior to saving and submitting your completed assignment through Canvas.

The lab website has post lab questions – these are not necessary – you only have to complete the questions in this lab assignment document.

Use your textbook, notes and these websites to answer the pre lab questions. http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/ecology.htm http://marinebio.org/Oceans/Conservation/Moyle/ch7.asp

Pre Lab Questions

1. Define habitat.
2. Define niche.
3. Define carrying capacity.
4. How many species can occupy a niche? Why is this the limit?

Go to the following site: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs_2K8/pages/PopulationBiology.html Download and print the instructions so you can work through the lab. As you work through the lab fill in the table below. Use this information to answer the questions that follow contained in this document.
5. Explain the difference between interspecies and intraspecies competition. Provide an example of each: interspecies and intraspecies competition.

6. List the reasons a population reaches its carrying capacity.

7. Fill in the table below with your data from the experiment. Be aware the table is per mL!

Table I:

Day P. caudatum
alone, cells/mL P. aurelia
alone, cells/mL P. caudatum
mixed, cells/mL P. aurelia
mixed, cells/mL
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

8. Explain how do you determine when carrying capacity has been reached for a population?
9. Which organism reached their carrying capacity first?
10. How do the population numbers for these organisms compare when they are grown individually versus when they were grown together? Suggest an explanation for any differences.
11. Someone else repeated this experiment many, many times. They found in a few of the samples on Days 10-16 the number of P. caudatum individuals in the mixed culture began to gradually rise. Propose a hypothesis for this observation. You will not be able to look up this answer … you must think about this lab to formulate your answer.

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