In this task you will:
• Critique 10 pieces of evidence to apply to your nursing practice.
• Search the library databases for pieces of original evidence on a topic that is of interest to you and your practice. (You will need the full article to find all the answers to both Part A and Part B.)
Part A of this task will first review one piece of evidence in detail.
Part B of this task will compare and contrast 9 more pieces of evidence as a group.
A. Select one example of a primary research report from a nursing research journal on a topic of interest to you in nursing and critique the article (suggested length of 2–3 pages) by doing the following: (What does primary research mean? Find out in Brown or Houser before you search for articles
Authors Name: Dahlquist Gisela and Associates
Article: Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden among Individuals Aged 0-34 Years, 1983-2007
Author’s Thesis Statement: Explaining if the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.
There have been an upsurge of younger patients of a chronic disease, type 1 diabetes, in the past decades in and the hardest hit countries are those in the Europe block where increase rate is 3.9% per annum. Upsurge in childhood diagnosis of diabetes are linked to: prenatal exposure to viral infections, caesarean delivery, blood group incompatibility, maternal age, parity and preeclampsia.
The study was conducted prior to consent by either the patients or parents. This research carried out combined statistics from two registers: the Swedish Childhood Diabetes register and Diabetes Incidence in Sweden Study. The first register, dealt only with patients under the age of 14.9 who were referred to pediatric departments. However, the registration organization and format were dissimilar to those used in the previous years and the learnt completeness staggers between 96 and 99%. The writer puts it that for a period of two years, three pediatrics didn’t forward data prospectively, though it was “adjusted afterward”.
On the other hand, Diabetes Incidence in Sweden Study covered between ages 15 and 34, basing its reports from a correspondent, a physician or diabetes nurse. The classification of the diabetes into either type 1 or 2 is according to that of the clinical classification of the doctor.
In precise terms, the author’s argument about type 1 diabetes and which are based on the Sweden register based on the population and more than twenty thousand cases of diabetes: “the pattern of change over time in type 1 diabetes reflects a shift to younger age at diagnosis. The author also pipes it that “there still is an increase over time which possibly reflects that a shift to younger age is ongoing also among older-age-at-diagnosis groups.” In the conclusions at page 1, the author points out that, “the dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups.”
Review and Evaluation of the Article
The author does a remarkable work of compiling data spanning a very long period of 24 years. However, in his so called analysis, there is more than meets the eye. In an analysis, some terms make the author’s analysis of type 1 diabetes dubious. Use of terms such as,” it has been speculated that the shift…” (page 1, 1st paragraph) and”The Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register registers almost all incident cases…” (Page 2,1st paragraph) makes the analysis wobble. Speculation is a synonym of guesswork and medicine research deals with real facts rather than baseless guesses which can’t be proved. Consequently, the author aptly points out that the Swedish Childhood Register registers almost all cases. Without the need for further explanation, it therefore implies that the study was done on a selected few cases.
While they were conducting the research, the author says that,” parents or patients gave individual informed consent to be registered.” In the case that they conducted a research on patients between the ages of 0-14.9, assuming that they did so with the consent of the patient, a person aged less than 14 years can’t give reliable data. Perhaps due to the embarrassment in front of the patient’s peers over not knowing their personal data such as the date of birth, it would compel them to guess their data, and would they be over 15 but give it as 14, it would be a mighty shunt on the results of the analysis. Where the parents give the ages of their children, it may be negative since the birth certificates may have got lost making them resort to guesswork. While the author gives several reasons that could be the causative of type 1 diabetes there is one causative, crucial, that he overlooks: diet. The fast foods that are on the rise, and where young people crowd on fast food restaurants could as well cause diabetes to people who never had any of the reasons that the author points.
I totally oppose the views of the author: his views are weak, crushed as easily as moths. Perhaps the author’s analysis could have been effective if, on the long period of study that spanned 24 years, he could taken his own firsthand data on patients rather than relying on second hand data from sources which he couldn’t prove. The author kind of tries to prove whether the speculation that,”speculated that the shift to younger age…”(page 1) is true or not. The speculation is a feat he doesn’t prove but adds another speculation on top of it, in his conclusions, “suggests that the exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups”(pg 1)
1. Identify the article you have chosen in an APA-formatted citation. (This is where you demonstrate your competency on formatting a full APA citation. You can place this citation in the graphic below where it states ‘full APA citation’
2. Design a graphic or chart to show how the researcher addressed the five areas of a research report (background information, review of the literature, discussion of methodology, specific data analysis, and conclusion). (You can use the example below or make your own chart covering these fives areas.)
Article Dahlquist Gisela. (2011). Diabetes Care. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0-34 Years, 1983-2007,6 pages
Background Information Dahlquist, page 1: proving if the upsurge of type 1 diagnosis in younger people is reflected by older age-groups. It doesn’t make sense to me because the authors base their arguments and statistics from other sources. The analysis was put in such layman terms and could be understood well, however, save for the few introductory paragraphs, the authors wrote extensively about the statistics from the Registrars’ registers. The authors’ abstract wasn’t so well structured (had a shoddy structure).Indeed, instead of the article shedding light on the theme, it threw me in a mire of confusion, what with the way the authors used maybe, speculation. Moreover, the authors’ conclusion was based on a presumption, “may be responsible for…”(page 1)
Review of Literature Dahlquist, page 2: I can only peg the abstract to be outdated, reason?, since 1983, when the research starts, the world has changed a great deal, new fast and diabetes related foods that could as they claim in their study, increase the level of diagnosis of diabetes in the young people since they are mostly eaten by the young people. The variables were understandable but weren’t (the theme) put forth by the authors. Much was given by the authors in their review concerning their research but the study was a study that was never was, a question that was never solved seeing that they didn’t answer they didn’t shed more light into it rather a mere, “maybe responsible…”
Methodology Dahlquist, page 2 & 3: Quantitative analysis is a theory that uses information that deals with numbers. Dahlquist and Associates uses this type of research method in a correlation design(because it uses the statistical relation between variables: age of the patients and years
The other research methods that are used by researchers follow under descriptive research method.
Comparative design is used by researchers to illustrate more sets of participants. A simple descriptive method is employed by researchers when they want to illustrate individual persons, settings.
Data Analysis From page one throughout to six, Dahlquist and Associates analyze the data the researchers analyze the data in understandable way, and the figures arranged in a flowing way even though the researchers tend to veer off the main subject.
Conclusion The work of the researchers can’t go down the drain, it gives the outline of the theme. However, their work, regardless of the more than two decades that it has spanned: falls out with the kilter to me as a clinician. Most of their work is based on other resources, such as registers from the two pediatricians whose accuracy can’t be vouched for.
A 3. Based on your analysis of the five areas, assess whether the evidence presented in the research report supports the conclusion (suggested length of 1/2–1 page).
Never does the evidence put forward by the researchers at one time give satisfactory information that would make my conclusion positive. In the information background, the author aptly puts it that the data was obtained from two pediatric registers (Wadhawa KK, 2011).They could be dealing with second hand information, i.e., information passed over from other sources whose accuracy can’t be determined. Therefore, the conclusions of the researchers were merely based on other sources. In the literature review, the researchers did a good work of drawing the tables, of which were understandable but no matter the perfection of the tables, the theme remained unanswered. The methodology used by the researchers, the correlation design, dealt with statistics (two valuables): ages and years. But, a inserting a single digit in a place where it isn’t supposed to be would make great changes and changes the twist the actual reality. Rather than adhere to the main theme, the researchers fill their study with figures and tables but no conclusions are justified. Nothing else is plausible about their conclusions which arte in any case, conclusions drawn from the figures and tables. In other terms, the researchers’ conclusions are drawn on conjectures: maybe, speculation.
A 4. Discuss ethical issues that may have arisen for the researcher while conducting the research for the article (suggested length of 1/2–1 page).
Among the ethical issues that may have risen are those concerning respect? Assuming ages of some of the researchers were lower compared to that of those being studied on, some people don’t take questions from people who are younger than them lightly. Those researched on could be aggressive towards the researcher. Also, some people tend to shy away; rather, don’t want to be known that they have various diseases to avoid stigma from the society. The study participants could have protected these rights by confidentiality (privacy): the researchers could have reassured the participants that their information could not be made available to people who were not directly undertaking the study. The other ethical issue may have been voluntary participation: the study participants could be pressurized into participating in the research (Sunil Goyal, 2011). Anonymous: the researchers could have reassured the anonymity of the identity of the researchers, also to the study researchers. Harm risk: the researchers were supposed to brief the participants of the harm that could result, and more so in this case, psychological. Informed consent: the study researchers could have be absolutely informed about the risks that are involved in research and there must give their word of participation
5. Discuss the type of research used for the study (suggested length of 1/2–1 page).
Description of the research type used
In the study, the researchers used correlation design. Correlation design is employed by researchers in a study to analyze and assess the degree of exams between two or more valuables. It was developed by Pearson in 1895, but later subsequent developments were done by Yule in 1897 and Fisher in 1935.Researchers use this type of research design for two main purposes: to predict an end result (co-variation and using the knowledge of one variable to predict that of the other one);and to assess the relationship that occurs between two or several variables.
There are two types of correlation design: explanatory and prediction. The steps followed in the explanatory design are: the correlation of two or several variables, assemble the data at specific time, get a minimum of two scores per participant in the group( one per variable), forward the correlation data, and interpret using the assessment results. On the hand, prediction design uses two variables: predictor and criterion variables. Predictor is the valuable that is used to predict a result in the study and in most cases evaluate at an earlier time while the criterion is the variable being forecasted and usually evaluated at a later time after predictor.
The design measures the connection between the scores using three ways: direction( either negative or positive); form(either non-linear or linear; and the quantity of the coefficient .
a. Explain whether or not other types of research would have been appropriate in the same situation.
Qualitative research method could have been better if the researchers had used it because it involves analysis of data from interviews, videos or artifacts while in contrary, the quantitative analyses statistical data only and therefore qualitative would have been more precise. Unlike quantitative analysis whereby the researcher remains objectively separated from the main subject, the qualitative not only doesn’t it not generalize but also is immersed in deep on the main subject. The answer, rather the subject matter was left to our devices. As stated above, about the comparison between quantitative and qualitative research methods, I would have recommended qualitative methodology since it would have answered the researcher’s theme. However, the method doesn’t guarantee low costs but its efficient on the research.
B. Continue to conduct a literature search for 9 more pieces of research to evaluate this nursing care or management problem related to nursing by doing the following:
B 1. Identify a nursing care or management problem for a nursing care or leadership situation (suggested length of 1/2–1 page).
Are patients of type2 diabetes aware of the medications that they should undergo? People suffering diabetes need to know that it can be treated and what lacks in their bodies which make them be diagnosed with that disease. Patient suffering from type 2 diabetes, or any type 1 whatsoever, suffer from the deficiency of insulin, produced by the pancreas, in their bodies and it can be supplemented. Controlling the disease is difficult and therefore the patients the patients should select carefully their diets, involve themselves in body exercises and being tested frequently on their glucose levels not only at the hospital but also when they are at home. People should render on healthy lifestyles which are save for medication, the best type of diabetes treatment. The causes of the rise of diabetes type 1 in the younger is an issue that need to be addressed and after the evaluation it can be identified the causes and how the young people can deal with them.
B 2. Complete the attached matrix to list 10 primary research articles (peer-reviewed, original research articles) you locate in major medical databases/sources. (What does primary research mean? Find out in Brown or Houser before you search for articles)
Note: You may submit your completed matrix as a separate attachment to the task.
Note: Credible sources of original research may include professional journals, research reports, professional Web sites, governmental reports, current texts less than five years old, and presentations from professional meetings. If you have an article that is meaningful to you and over five years old, justify this in your analysis of the article.
Evidence Matrix of 10 pieces of Primary Research on one Topic related to Nursing
Author, title source Date, year Research Type (experimental, quasi-experimental, case series, ethnographic, etc) Population/
sample size Outcome measures Pertinent data from results Suggested Conclusions Comments
Tom, Rickey, Medical News Today 28th June, 2011 experimental How many participants? Where was the study conducted? Geographic region as well as sample setting (hospital, clinic, community?)
The study was carried out in a laboratory on bacteria What variables did they measure? And what were their outcomes?
Number of S. mutans in mouth. The lower the number, the healthier one is What did the author’s identify as their key findings? Were these important to you?
Intake of a lot of sugar products , which is left in our teeth is fed on by bacteria and they in turn give out acid that erodes our teeth Keeping the sugar in the mouth to a minimum by using a fluoride rinse before retiring to the bed at night, healthy diet and flossing Make notes here as to why this piece of research/evidence is important to you, why you chose to make this part of your 10 article review.
Teeth are important part of our body, beauty is defined by the general appearance of an individual including the color of the teeth. General appearance matters to everyone
British Dental Health Foundation, Nearly Half Admit Skipping Brushing Teeth At Bedtime, U.K Medical News Today 7th June, 2011 Quasi experimental Geographical Percentages
59% skip brushing teeth before going to bed(women) and 35% too of men The number of women who skip brushing their teeth compared to men is higher compared to that of men
As a man it’s worrying about the results of men against women If one brushes teeth at night when retiring to bed removes deposits accumulated during the day, and plaque that causes gum disease The author puts the article in such terms about the need to preserve our teeth and paraphrasing sages,” an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”
Ceuta Healthcare Ltd, Gum Disease Survey Reveals Worrying Trend In Oral Hygiene Medical News Today 20th May, 2011 Quasi experimental geographical Percentages
17% of participants brush once in a day, 36% not flossing at all while 14% just once in a day and 30% never using a mouthwash People with gum disease are twice likely to suffer from coronary diseases, pregnant women with gum disease are seven times more likely to: breast cancer , premature and extremely small babies One has to identify the best brand of mouthwash and mouthwash and people to look out for the symptoms of gum diseases and if sported pay a visit to the personal dentist The most important age in ones life is in the infantry stage and mothers should make the best of their children
Allen Press Publishing Services, Gene Combination Identified As Risk Factor In Success Of Dental Implants Medical News Today 30th June, 2011 Correlation design Fifty participants Numbers
17 participants of the 25 people with peri-implantitis were genotype positive while only 5 of the 25 participants with healthy tissues were genotype positive People with genotype positive are prone to more periodontal destruction of tissues than those with healthy tissues People with peri-implantitis should brush more regularly since they are susceptible to the increased discharge from the tissues The author gives a note how not matter whether one has got healthy tissues or peri-implantitis, the level of damage from the discharge from the tissues can be controlled
British Dental Health Foundation, Poor Oral Care May Cause Sexual Problems Medical News Today 29th June, 2011 Correlation design 70 males Digits, more than five male participants with acute erectile dysfunction had gum disease There was a connection between gum disease and severe erectile dysfunction The oral diseases can be fought by routine care of the teeth and gums when one ids at home which can be brought about by brushing teeth two minutes daily using fluoride toothpaste, lowering the intake of sugary goods and regular visits to ones dentist oral diseases which bring severe erectile dysfunction lead to marriage breakages but that can be a footnote in history if the priceless author’s article can be followed. The information is absolutely recommendable
British Dental Health Foundation, Chocolate Makes Us Smile The Most Medical News Today 15th June 2011 Correlation design Community Percentage, chocolate was the thing that made 60% of the participants smile Smiling related to chocolate made people more smile than anything else Trying to reduce the intake of sugary foods like chocolate and if not so, brushing one’s teeth twice in a day using a fluoride toothpaste The article was important to me in that it taught us that not all sweet foods we take could spell wellbeing of our bodies
British Dental Health Foundation, Oral Health Deteriorates During Hospital Stays Medical News Today 22nd June, 2011 Research study review Hospital years, between 1998 to 2009. There was increment in the accumulation of plaque and gingival, and also the inflammation of mucus The survey conducted revealed that it was severe to patients who required assistance in breathing A deterioration would be anticipated to upsurge the danger of infections acquired in hospital It has shed on issues that are vital to patients: knowing that not only do hospitals are important but also have negative effects too.
Goyal Sunil, Estimation of Relationship between psychosocial stress and periodontal status using serum cortisol level: A clinic-biochemical study CINAHL 25th April 2011 Questionnaire Community Numbers, 16 out of the 47 participants had chronic periodontitis while the other group had 31 out of the 4 stressed There is a significant connection between cortisol and smoking Stress may contribute to periodontal disease It gave in prose terms, the connection between smoking, cortisol, periodontal disease and stress and the need to be on the need to watch them out
Wadhawani KK, A Comparative evaluation of smear layer removal using two rotary instrument systems with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in different states: A SEM study CINAHL 25th April 2011 Experimental 25 human teeth Percentage, the results remained the sane where 17% EDTA and 19& EDTA were used there wasn’t any statistical difference with the different instruments that were employed The two NITI instruments that were used gave similar results of the root canal after they were used with either EDTA gel or EDTA solution It has sheds light that various designs of NITI instruments could be in the removal of the debris and smearing of producing of another layer
Agrawal Usha, Morphological and ultrastructural charasteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma CINAHL 25th April 2011 Case study 72 cases of OSCC Percentage, 16.7% of the cases had short elastic fibers while 25% had dense lymphocytic infiltrate Factors released by lymphocytes or tumor cells could maybe hazard degradation of ECM fibers Exposure to carcinogens like smoke could bring polyclonal abnormalities The study of these subjects, genetic and immunehistochemical are vital to us when knowing the mode of invasion, metastasis and recurrence and the things that we should keep away from in our lives (Allen Press Publishing Services, 2011).
name. (2011). title. name of journal , 6 pages.
B 3. Conduct a review of the 10 peer-reviewed research articles in which you:
a. Develop an annotated bibliography for each article (suggested length of 2–3 pages total for all annotations, suggested length of each annotation is found in the examples from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/01/)
Note: An annotated bibliography is includes a brief summary of content for each book or article reviewed and other relevant comments of importance to you as well as and information that you believe can be of help for your future study.
Rickey Tom, (2011).Dental Care .How Cavity- Causing Microbes Invade The Heart.
In this article, Tom Rickey defines how the bacterium S. mutans invades the oral cavities by giving out acid that wears out our teeth. This acid, as he proposes, attacks the mouth after a dental procedure which makes them enter the bloodstream (Ceuta Healthcare Ltd, 2011). Even though they the bacteria are destroyed by the immune system, some of them finds their way to the heart and more so the heart valves causing the inflammation of the heart valves, a condition known as endocarditic which can be fatal.
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care Nearly Half Admit Skipping Brushing Teeth At Bedtime
This research carried out by the British Dental Health Foundation revealed out that almost half of the people in the U.K don’t brush their teeth before going to sleep. The research revealed that men who didn’t brush their teeth fall far lower (35%) compared to women (47%). The Chief Executive of the researching organizing said that people who didn’t brush their teeth before going to bed were storing oral problems in their mouths for future reference. The Chief Executive put forward the need to brush the teeth at least once in a day to avoid the accumulation of the bacteria that causes germ diseases.
Ceuta Healthcare Ltd, (2011). Dental Care Gum Disease Survey Reveals Worrying Trend In Oral Hygiene
This research by Ceuta Healthcare Ltd. Reveals how many people in Britain are in the risk of getting gum diseases for failing or not adequately brushing their teeth? The research figures showed that 17% of the population brushes their teeth once daily. The research also showed that 30% of the population don’t use mouthwash but more importantly, that women with gum diseases are prone to get give birth to premature children which are small seven times more while on the other hand, there is twice probability to the people suffering from gum diseases of them getting coronary artery disease.
Allen Press Publishing Services, (2011). Dental Care Gene Combination Identified As Risk Factor In Success Of Dental Implants
This article by Allen Press Publishers carried out a research study to patients with implants who were divided into two sets each of twenty five. The first set, with peri-implants were treated and put in a maintenance program. In this study, the patients who were genotype positive had much more increased discharge and destruction of their periodontal tissues (British Dental Health Foundation, 2011). On the other side, those who were genotype negative had remarkable response when they were put under treatment. The research showed that when these two alleles were combined to the patients with tissues that were periodontal, signified a risk which could end in more destruction of tissues.
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care Poor Oral Care May Cause Sexual Problems
This research was carried out by British Dental Health Foundation on seventy participants. Per every four men in a group of five, they had acute erectile dysfunction because they had gum disease. The research aptly put that erectile dysfunction caused men to have low self-esteem, low self-dignity and a rocky marriage with their spouses. The book indicates that there’s a connection between acute erectile dysfunction and gum disease( chronic periodontitis)
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care Chocolate Makes Us Smile The Most
Carried out by the British Dental Health Foundation on people as in what makes them smile. Chocolate topped the list while, seeing a loved one, came in second. The Chief Executive, Nigel Carter, responded to the subject by saying that there was great need to brush teeth for two minutes daily with fluoride toothpaste and reducing the intake of sugary food and drinks, and also paying regular visits to one’s dentist
British Dental Health Foundation, (2011) Dental Care Oral Health Deteriorates During Hospital Stays
This carried out British Dental Health Foundation on hospitalized patients showed that at oral health worsens and the causative factors were a lowered quality of life and also infections that are acquired in the hospital. During the study, it was shown that there was accumulation of both gingival and also mucosal inflammation more so to the patients who had breathing difficulties.
Sunil Goyal, (2011) Dental Care Estimation of Relationship between psychosocial stress and periodontal status using serum cortisol level: A clinic-biochemical study
This research was carried out by Sunil Goyal and associates on 47 participants, male and female. They were partitioned into two groups and their ranges of their stress assess using standard questionnaire method. The main aim of the study was to find out the impact and influence of psychosocial stress on periodontium using both a questionnaire data and serum cortisol level. The statistics found out showed that there was a connection between cortisol and smoking.
Wadhawa KK, (2011) Dental Care A Comparative evaluation of smear layer removal using two rotary instrument systems with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in different states: A SEM study
The aim of this study was to assess the capability of 17% EDTA solution and 19% EDTA in eliminating waste emitted during the readiness of root canal with a couple of NTI files. Twenty teeth that had been freshly extracted were partitioned into four portions and immersed into 2ml 3% sodium hypochlorite, 17% EDTA solution and 19% EDTA gel, and protaper files respectively (Usha Agrawal, 2011). The study showed that there weren’t any difference changes in the statistics no matter the different instruments that were used.
Usha Agrawal, (2011) Dental Care Morphological and ultrastructural charasteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma
The aim of the study carried out by Agrawal was to see the changes that would occur in extracellular matrix with the habitual stains of histochemical. The case was carried out on 72 OSCC and it was demonstrated that the if there is an increment of elaunin, oxytalan and elastic fibers and also a reduction in collagen fibers linked OSCC and lymph node metastasis.
NOTE B3b through B4 compare and contrast all of the articles and discuss them as a group.
B3b. Discuss whether the researchers present a case for the efficacy of a specified therapeutic approach.
In research, efficacy means that there’s the end result of the desired study and the question was quenched, i.e., was satisfactory. The authors put their research in understandable terms but while their study can’t be opposed, there can’t be accepted unless conducted through the methods that they used to arrive at
B3c. Identify whether the researchers chose tools that were similar or different.
In their researches, the tools chose were similar, correlation, since there dealt with figures. The researchers measured variables against one another: using percentages and numbers.
B3d. Discuss whether you believe the tools the researchers chose could have affected their results.
Some researchers could have less accurate figures than the others because there may have been digits and figures that had to be rounded off to the nearest whole numbers and subsequent round offs could lead to the answers being off the track much during the evaluation of the totals.
B 4. Develop an evidence summary of the articles, identifying what key criteria were used to develop it
The articles followed the plan of a theoretical model, since they tended to followed tended to have the aim of the study, the methodology that was used in the research study articles, the results that were observed by the research undertakers, and the conclusions that were drawn after the result. There were the specifications of the authors about what, how, why, where and when the results occurred and ultimately, the variables were connected to each other
B 5. Recommend a specific nursing strategy based on the evidence or the theoretical models you found in your review
Patient safety: Having learnt that some hospitalized patients with difficulties in breathing can get diseases in their hospital beds, the hospititals should be decontaminated after the previous patients are discharged and other patients are to be admitted so as to do away with the bacteria that could cause the infections.
Clinical effectiveness: the government policies should increase the range and extent of the facilities of the clinics so that all patients suffering from the various diverse diseases can be taken care well and also home treatment facilities should be introduced so that the patients who don’t have severe disease can be treated in their homes by respective area doctors with the hustle of being hospitalized to the hospitals
Public health education: patients should be educated how they can reduce the possibilities of diseases but rendering healthy lifestyles that could also ensure the wellbeing of their unborn babies ,
B 6. Explain why you believe it is important to use a theoretical model for nursing research (suggested length of 1/2–1 page).
In my viewpoint, a theoretical model when its used by the researchers helps them link the verities together and follow a specific pattern rather a jumbled research that doesn’t adhere to the main theme; the relationship between the research study and the theoretical model is not only direct but also positive; the theoretical model gives the guidelines that the research process follows, assists in the plan, the questions that are to be based on the research, the analyzing and also how the research will be interpreted; if a research doesn’t use the theoretical model, the resulting data tend to be discreet since it tends to add to the already accumulated knowledge of the research study (Rickey Tom, 2011). Also when the theoretical model is used, it points out the important areas for research study. The theoretical propositions can also be proved through research.
B. Include all in-text citations and References in APA format.
Rickey Tom, (2011).Dental Care .How Cavity- Causing Microbes Invade The Heart.
Usha Agrawal, (2011). Dental Care. Morphological and ultrastructural charasteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care. Nearly Half Admit Skipping Brushing Teeth At Bedtime
Ceuta Healthcare Ltd, (2011). Dental Care.Gum Disease Survey Reveals Worrying Trend In Oral Hygiene
Allen Press Publishing Services, (2011). Dental Care.Gene Combination Identified As Risk Factor In Success Of Dental Implants
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care.Poor Oral Care May Cause Sexual Problems
British Dental Health Foundation,(2011). Dental Care.Chocolate Makes Us Smile The Most
British Dental Health Foundation, (2011). Dental Care.Oral Health Deteriorates During Hospital Stays
Sunil Goyal,(2011). Dental Care. Estimation of Relationship between psychosocial stress and periodontal status using serum cortisol level: A clinic-biochemical study
Wadhawa KK,(2011). Dental Care . A Comparative evaluation of smear layer removal using two rotary instrument systems with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in different states: A SEM study