For what reasons do you think California and Texas seemingly had a disproportionate number of murders than New York and Pennsylvania in 2011?

MATH125: Unit 4 Individual Project

Counting Techniques and Introduction to Probability

State Total

murders1 Total

firearms Handguns Rifles Shotguns Firearms

(type

unknown) Knives or

cutting

instruments Other

weapons Hands, fists,

feet, etc.2

Alaska 29 16 5 0 3 8 6 5 2

Arizona 339 222 165 14 9 34 49 59 9

Arkansas 153 110 52 4 6 48 22 17 4

California 1,790 1,220 866 45 50 259 261 208 101

Colorado 147 73 39 3 5 26 22 31 21

Connecticut 128 94 54 1 1 38 18 10 6

Delaware 41 28 18 0 3 7 8 2 3

District of Columbia 108 77 37 0 1 39 21 9 1

Georgia 522 370 326 16 16 12 61 83 8

Hawaii 7 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 3

Idaho 32 17 15 1 0 1 4 8 3

Illinois3 452 377 364 1 5 7 29 29 17

Indiana 284 183 115 9 12 47 36 43 22

Iowa 44 19 7 0 2 10 10 10 5

Kansas 110 73 31 3 5 34 11 16 10

Kentucky 150 100 77 6 5 12 13 24 13

Louisiana 485 402 372 10 8 12 28 29 26

Maine 25 12 3 1 1 7 4 7 2

Maryland 398 272 262 2 5 3 75 34 17

Massachusetts 183 122 52 0 1 69 30 22 9

Michigan 613 450 267 29 15 139 43 89 31

Minnesota 70 43 36 3 3 1 12 12 3

Mississippi 187 138 121 6 4 7 26 14 9

Missouri 364 276 158 13 9 96 28 42 18

Montana 18 7 2 3 1 1 4 5 2

Nebraska 65 42 35 2 1 4 7 9 7

Nevada 129 75 46 2 1 26 20 25 9

New Hampshire 16 6 1 2 1 2 4 6 0

New Jersey 379 269 238 1 5 25 51 41 18

New Mexico 121 60 45 2 2 11 21 32 8

New York 774 445 394 5 16 30 160 143 26

North Carolina 489 335 235 26 19 55 60 57 37

North Dakota 12 6 3 0 0 3 4 0 2

Ohio 488 344 187 8 13 136 44 80 20

Oklahoma 204 131 99 8 9 15 26 21 26

Oregon 77 40 13 1 2 24 22 10 5

Pennsylvania 636 470 379 8 19 64 73 66 27

Rhode Island 14 5 1 0 0 4 5 4 0

South Carolina 319 223 126 10 12 75 38 40 18

South Dakota 15 5 3 1 0 1 4 3 3

Tennessee 373 244 172 7 13 52 51 62 16

Texas 1,089 699 497 37 48 117 175 134 81

Utah 51 26 15 4 1 6 5 9 11

Vermont 8 4 2 0 0 2 2 2 0

Virginia 303 208 110 10 15 73 33 41 21

Washington 161 79 58 1 3 17 29 36 17

West Virginia 74 43 23 10 3 7 11 13 7

Wisconsin 135 80 60 7 3 10 21 13 21

Wyoming 15 11 7 0 0 4 0 1 3

Virgin Islands 38 31 27 0 0 4 5 2 0

1 Total number of murders for which supplemental homicide data were received.

2 Pushed is included in hands, fists, feet, etc.

3 Limited supplemental homicide data were received.

(FBI, 2011)

The table above for murders by weapon types is from the FBI’s Criminal Justice Services Division and represents the reported murders in each state for the year 2011. (Please see http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/tables/table-20 for the referenced table.)

Be sure to show ALL of your work details. Submit your answers in a Word document in the Unit 4 IP Submissions area.

1. How many ways are there for choosing 5 states from the top 10 states with the most murders if order is considered? What about if order is not considered?

2. What would be the probability that randomly choosing 3 states from the top 6 murder states would actually be the top 3 states for murders in the United States in exact correct decreasing order (1. CA, 2. TX, 3. NY)?

3. Calculate the mean, median, and mode for the total murders in the top 20 states.

4. Calculate the standard deviation and variance for the total murders in the top 20 states.

5. In Texas, given that a specific person was murdered by a firearm, what is the probability that the murder was committed with a rifle?

6. In California, given that a specific person was murdered by a firearm, what is the probability that the murder was committed either with a rifle or a shotgun?

7. Choose 2 states, and determine how much more likely a person is to be murdered using a handgun in one state than the other if the person is murdered.

8. For what reasons do you think California and Texas seemingly had a disproportionate number of murders than New York and Pennsylvania in 2011?

Reference

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Table 20: Murder. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/tables/table-20

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