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Explain the use of fire and hominids.

The test will have three parts: a matching section, identification items, and an essay question requiring that you take a position and support with evidence. This study guide has two parts: items that might appear in the identification and matching sections, and potential essay questions.

I.
hunter-gatherers
homo habilis
homo erectus
use of fire and hominids
bipedalism
pelvis size and bipedalism/childbirth
advantage of language to early homo sapiens
Neanderthals
Venus figurines/statuettes
homo sapiens—migration: when out of Africa? How did they cross into what is now
the “Americas”?
domestication of plants—first sites? name some plants that were domesticated
domestication of animals—first animal? which animals? In the Americas?
transhumance
Fertile Crescent
role of nomadic pastoralists
Uruk
Sumer
cuneiform
When and where do first cities appear? Why in those parts of the world?
How is social organization of cities different from small agricultural villages or hunting/gathering groups as discussed in this class?
Mesopotamia; Euphrates and Tigris
scribes
Sargon the Great
Imhotep
Osiris and Isis
Nile
hieroglyphics
Harrapan cities (Harrapa; Mohenjo Daro in Indus River Valley): key characteristics
Harrapan script/seal stones
Yangshao and Longshan cultures
Hyksos
chariots
Amun-Re
Akenaten and Nefertiti
Amorites
Hammurapi (Hammurabi)—and his “code”
Rig Veda and the Vedic peoples in Indus River Valley
Shangdi—Shang social structure and religious practices
Oracle Bones
Lady Hao
Bronze
microsocieties
Minoans
Mycenaeans
Linear A and Linear B
trade in the Mediterranean region

II. Possible essay questions
1. How did bipedalism and language mark turning points in the development of hominids? How did they distinguish hominids from other mammals? Discuss some of the advantages that bipedalism and language gave to hominids?

2. The “agricultural revolution” allowed humans to live in densely populated cities for the first time in history. Why? Comparing with rural villages and/or hunter-gathering societies, how did urban societies differ? What was the nature of the relations between urban areas and rural areas in Afro-Eurasian societies from around 3,500 BCE?

3. What role did technological development play in the emergence of Afro-Eurasian societies? Think about things like irrigation, metallurgy, sewer systems, and writing.

4. What is a territorial state? Where and when did territorial states form? What factors encouraged the formation of territorial states? How were territorial states—particularly in North Africa and Southwest Asia—able to survive as new states emerged? Can you give an example of states that did not survive?


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